Abstract

Graphene’s featureless optical absorption, ultrahigh carrier mobility, and variable optical absorption by an applied gate voltage enable a new breed of optical modulators with broad optical and electrical bandwidths. Here we report on an electro-optic modulator that integrates single-layer graphene in a sub-wavelength thick, reflective modulator structure. These modulators provide a large degree of design freedom, which allows tailoring of their optical properties to specific needs. Current devices feature an active aperture ~100 µm, and provide uniform modulation with flat frequency response from 1 Hz to >100 MHz. These novel, low insertion-loss graphene-based modulators offer solutions to a variety of high-speed amplitude modulation tasks that require optical amplitude modulation without phase distortions, a flat frequency response, or ultra-thin geometries, such as for controlling monolithic, high-repetition rate mode-locked lasers or active interferometers.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2011

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

An, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bielawski, S.

Blake, P.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriksen, E. A.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Joshi, P.

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Katsnelson, M. I.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z. Q.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, C. H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, M. C.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nah, J.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nair, R. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neal, A. T.

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peres, N. M. R.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piner, R.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popa, D.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Privitera, G.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, H. E.

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruoff, R. S.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stauber, T.

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stormer, H. L.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tadigadapa, S. A.

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, C.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torrisi, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toutam, V. K.

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tutuc, E.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velamakanni, A.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D.

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

P. Joshi, H. E. Romero, A. T. Neal, V. K. Toutam, and S. A. Tadigadapa, “Intrinsic doping and gate hysteresis in graphene field effect devices fabricated on SiO2 substrates,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22(33), 334214 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, M. I. Katsnelson, I. V. Grigorieva, S. V. Dubonos, and A. A. Firsov, “Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene,” Nature 438(7065), 197–200 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Optical conductivity of graphene in the visible region of the spectrum,” Phys. Rev. B 78(8), 085432 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(19), 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science 306(5696), 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine structure constant defines visual transparency of graphene,” Science 320(5881), 1308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Li, W. Cai, J. An, S. Kim, J. Nah, D. Yang, R. Piner, A. Velamakanni, I. Jung, E. Tutuc, S. K. Banerjee, L. Colombo, and R. S. Ruoff, “Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform graphene films on copper foils,” Science 324(5932), 1312–1314 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. Hartl, C.-C. Lee, C. Mohr, J. Bethge, S. Suzuki, M. E. Fermann, and T. R. Schibli, “Ultra-low phase-noise Tm-fiber frequency comb with an intra-cavity graphene electro-optic modulator,” submitted to CLEO 2012 Science and Innovations, San Jose, CA, USA.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tuning of the optical absorption of graphene by electric field-gating. Left: Graphene on a gated dielectric with thickness d and dielectric constant ε. Right: Excitation of electrons from the valence band (blue cones) to the conduction band (red cones) through absorption of a photon. The absorption is blocked when graphene is strongly doped (either n- or p-doped; only p-doping is shown here). For a given voltage higher ε or lower d result in larger tuning of EF. ‘const’ refers to the negative value of the charge-neutrality voltage of the device (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sketch of the device structure. Silver functions as the back gate and mirror. A 225 nm thick Ta2O5 layer serves as the gate insulator and the substrate for the graphene. The top contact on the graphene is formed by a ring-shaped Ti/Al electrode. Graphene outside the top contact annulus was removed by oxygen plasma to minimize the device capacitance. (b) Electric-field-square distribution (blue line) in the multilayer structure for 1.55 µm wavelength light at normal incidence. (|E|2 was normalized to 1 for the travelling incoming wave). The black curve represents the refractive index of each layer. Here, the layer thickness of SiNx is 20 nm; Ta2O5 is 225 nm, and |E|2 on graphene is 0.94, yielding a maximum loss of 5.1%, of which 2.1% are absorbed by the undoped graphene.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Left) Optical microscope image of the modulator. (Right) Modulation depth measured by two-dimensional scans over the active area of the graphene modulator at various driving frequencies. The modulation depth is calibrated to the incident laser power; the driving voltage was 1Vpp (square wave).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Frequency response of the graphene modulator with 225 nm Ta2O5 dielectric (blue: experimental, orange: fit). The 3dB corner was found to be 154 MHz. The fluctuations in the modulation amplitude near the frequency corner were found to be caused by RF background noise. An amplitude roll-off at frequencies lower than 1 Hz was observed and believed to be related to the hysteresis effects caused by the underlying oxide layer [13]. The driving voltage was 1Vpp (square wave) (b) Modulation depth as a function of the RMS amplitude when driven at 100 kHz (sine wave). ‘165’ and ‘225’ refers to the thickness of the Ta2O5 layer in two different devices.

Equations (2)

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σ= σ 0 2 [ tanh( ω+2 E F 4 k B T )+tanh( ω2 E F 4 k B T ) ],
E F | n+ n 0 | ε d | V+ V 0 | ,

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