Abstract

We demonstrate that a novel actuation scheme, employed in an optical control deformable mirror, can be more convenient than the conventional discrete fixed actuators approach. The Photo-Controlled Deformable Mirror (PCDM) mirror leverages consumer LCD display technology in the wavefront forming control, enabling flexible programmable configuration of the actuation geometry. This new approach simplifies the driving electronics, relaxing the per channel cost of high spatial control of the wavefront forming surface. In our experiment we tested the PCDM by applying the equivalent of 36, 76 and 201 actuators, this by just changing the light driving pattern. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this technique in a closed loop setup, which showed performances superior to the state of the art for similar DM, while providing a significant reduction in the hardware complexity.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (4)

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

S. Bonora, D. Brida, P. Villoresi, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrabroadband pulse shaping with a push-pull deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23147–23152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2006 (4)

J. Khoury, A. Drehman, C. L. Woods, B. Haji-Saeed, S. K. Sengupta, W. Goodhue, and J. Kierstead, “Optically driven microelectromechanical-system deformable mirror under high-frequency AC bias,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 808–810 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bonora and L. Poletto, “Push-pull membrane mirrors for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14(25), 11935–11944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2000 (2)

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Paterson, I. Munro, and J. Dainty, “A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror,” Opt. Express 6(9), 175–185 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-6-9-175 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wave front sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Arcidiacono, C.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

Aubourg, P.

Backus, S.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldis, H.

Bartels, R.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baruffolo, A.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bassi, M.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonora, S.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, D. Brida, P. Villoresi, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrabroadband pulse shaping with a push-pull deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23147–23152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora and L. Poletto, “Push-pull membrane mirrors for adaptive optics,” Opt. Express 14(25), 11935–11944 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of a sub-10-fs pulse wave front,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 207–209 (2004).

Bortolozzo, U.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brida, D.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, D. Brida, P. Villoresi, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrabroadband pulse shaping with a push-pull deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23147–23152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capraro, I.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, J.

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

Cerullo, G.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, D. Brida, P. Villoresi, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrabroadband pulse shaping with a push-pull deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23147–23152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanteloup, J. C.

Christov, I. P.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chung, M.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cirmi, G.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Coburn, D.

Dainty, C.

Dainty, J.

Dalimier, E.

Daly, E.

De Silvestri, S.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of a sub-10-fs pulse wave front,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 207–209 (2004).

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaney, N.

Dima, M.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

Drehman, A.

Dubis, A. M.

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

Dubra, A.

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falco, I.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farinato, J.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

Farrell, T.

Gentile, G.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Godara, P.

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

Goodhue, W.

Haji-Saeed, B.

Hareng, M.

Huignard, J. P.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Aubourg, J. P. Huignard, M. Hareng, and R. A. Mullen, “Liquid crystal light valve using bulk monocrystalline Bi12SiO20 as the photoconductive material,” Appl. Opt. 21(20), 3706–3712 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huignard, J.-P.

Hunter, J. J.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoury, J.

Kierstead, J.

Laurent, F.

Loiseaux, B.

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackey, D.

Mackey, R.

Magrin, D.

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manzoni, C.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marangoni, M.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marrani, A.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Merigan, W. H.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

Misoguti, L.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G.

Mullen, R. A.

Munro, I.

Murnane, M. M.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Pascolini, M.

Paterson, C.

Poletto, L.

Ragazzoni, R.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wave front sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Romanin, M.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossettini, P.

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, B. E.

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sengupta, S. K.

Sergienko, A. V.

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

Stepien, K. E.

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

Sulai, Y.

Tondello, G.

Trestino, C.

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vdovin, G.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, D. Brida, P. Villoresi, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrabroadband pulse shaping with a push-pull deformable mirror,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23147–23152 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, G. Tondello, C. Vozzi, M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Optimization of high-order harmonic generation by adaptive control of a sub-10-fs pulse wave front,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 207–209 (2004).

Viotto, V.

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

Williams, D. R.

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woods, C. L.

Zanoni, E.

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, E.

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE (1)

R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, M. Dima, J. Farinato, D. Magrin, and V. Viotto, “Adaptive optics with solely natural guide stars for an extremely large telescope,” Adaptive Optics Systems II, Proc. of SPIE 7736, 773623 (2010).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

U. Bortolozzo, S. Bonora, J. P. Huignard, and S. Residori, “Continuous photocontrolled deformable membrane mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(25), 251108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Bonora, M. Meneghini, A. Marrani, M. Bassi, I. Falco, and E. Zanoni, “Photostrictive effect in a polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene copolymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033506 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Eye (Lond.) (1)

E. A. Rossi, M. Chung, A. Dubra, J. J. Hunter, W. H. Merigan, and D. R. Williams, “Imaging retinal mosaics in the living eye,” Eye (Lond.) 25(3), 301–308 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Ragazzoni, “Pupil plane wave front sensing with an oscillating prism,” J. Mod. Opt. 43(2), 289–293 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. C. Kapteyn, R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, and M. M. Murnane, “Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays,” Nature 406(6792), 164–166 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Bonato, A. V. Sergienko, B. E. Saleh, S. Bonora, and P. Villoresi, “Even-order aberration cancellation in quantum interferometry,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(23), 233603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Farinato, V. Viotto, R. Ragazzoni, C. Arcidiacono, A. Baruffolo, M. Dima, G. Gentile, D. Magrin, and P. Rossettini, “A compact design of a WFS for a natural guide star based ELT adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77362M, 77362M-7 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Bonora, I. Capraro, L. Poletto, M. Romanin, C. Trestino, and P. Villoresi, “Wave front active control by a digital-signal-processor-driven deformable membrane mirror,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

US Ophthalmic Review (1)

J. Carroll, A. M. Dubis, P. Godara, A. Dubra, and K. E. Stepien, “Clinical applications of retinal imaging with adaptive optics,” US Ophthalmic Review 4, 78–83 (2011).

Other (3)

R. Tyson, Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook (Optical Science and Engineering 2005).

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford Series in Optical and Imaging Sciences, 1998).

L. Thibos, R. Applegate, J. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of the eye,” in Vision Science and its Applications, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2000), paper SuC1.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (1789 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1854 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (1975 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Right hand side: PCDM drive optics. Left hand side: PCDM control pixel geometry mapped to the BSO crystal for a 10 x 10 configuration. BL Blue Light from the LCD driving display showing an example of 10x10 actuators pattern, M Membrane border, AR active region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

, left panel: The measured DM stroke (PV) in function of the gray scale of the LCD panel. Right panel:Stroke of the PCDM linearized.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Equivalent electrical model of the PCDM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Left panel, measurement (points) and simulations (dashed lines) of the normalized voltage drop on the membrane in function of the frequency of the power supply under uniform illumination at different intensities. Right panel: normalized voltage on the membrane in function of the driving light intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Closed loop setup for the demonstration of the PCDM correction capabilities. The aberrations are generated by the phase plate placed in the plane A, which is conjugated with the plane B on the PCDM and C on the wavefront sensor. Arm 1: collimator and phase screen for time changing aberrations; Arm 2: afocal lens x 2 – 5mm to 10mm, f1 = 100mm, f2 = 200mm; Arm 3: Shack-Hartmann WFS, lenslet pitch 300µm, focal length 18mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Rms deviation from reference with the closed loop off and on for the 6x6, 10x10 and 15x15 actuators pattern. The phase screen was moved in and out by 5mm in order to correct for the same aberrations in both conditions.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Adaptive optics closed loop working for the case of the 6x6actuators layout (Media 1).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Adaptive optics closed loop working for the case of the 15x15 actuators layout (Media 3).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Adaptive optics closed loop working for the case of the 10x10actuators layout (Media 2).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Left Panel: Zernike polynomials generated by using the closed loop and the patterns necessary for generating them. Right panel: peak to valley amplitude of each Zernike term obtained by the closed loop.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

high resolution control of the light reflected by the PCDM via high resolution addressing of the LCD. The letters of the Latin word for LUX were projected on the back of the PCDM, which resulted in their formation on a screen placed at 2m distance.

Equations (5)

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C DM = ε 0 A t DM =50pF
C BSO = ε 0 ε BSO A t BSO =56pF
R O = t BSO σ BSO A
R PH = t BSO σ PH (I)A = t BSO αI σ BSO A
V DM = V AC [ ( 1 jω C M + R BSO ) 1 + 1 R 0 + 1 R PH (I) ] 1 { 1 jω C M + [ ( 1 jω C M + R BSO ) 1 + 1 R 0 + 1 R PH (I) ] 1 }

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