Abstract

A quality quantifier, referred to as measurement quality quantifier (MQQ), is proposed for indirect measurements. It satisfies the property that the MQQ of the data fusion of two or more independent measurements is the sum of the MQQs of the individual measurements and can also be determined in absolute terms for ill-posed problems. It is calculated from the covariance and Jacobian matrices of the observations, but the same result is also obtained using the covariance and averaging kernel matrices of the retrieved quantities. In the case of measurements of a continuous distribution a quantifier that provides the information distribution can be derived from the MQQ. The proposed quantifiers are herewith used for the quality assessment of atmospheric ozone measurements performed by IASI and MIPAS instruments.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Carlotti and L. Magnani, “Two-dimensional sensitivity analysis of MIPAS observations,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5340–5357 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Ceccherini and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Variance-covariance matrix and averaging kernels for the Levenberg-Marquardt solution of the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 3131–3139 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Ceccherini, “Analytical determination of the regularization parameter in the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2554–2556 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3665–3673 (2002).
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  20. S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010

S. Ceccherini and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Variance-covariance matrix and averaging kernels for the Levenberg-Marquardt solution of the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 3131–3139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Carlotti and L. Magnani, “Two-dimensional sensitivity analysis of MIPAS observations,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5340–5357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2003

2002

2000

1935

R. A. Fisher, “The logic of inductive inference,” J.R. Stat. Soc. 98(1), 39–54 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Bazzini, G.

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belotti, C.

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Blom, C.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Boynard, A.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, A.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42(32), 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlotti, M.

M. Carlotti and L. Magnani, “Two-dimensional sensitivity analysis of MIPAS observations,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5340–5357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelli, E.

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ceccherini, S.

S. Ceccherini and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Variance-covariance matrix and averaging kernels for the Levenberg-Marquardt solution of the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 3131–3139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, “Analytical determination of the regularization parameter in the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Lett. 30(19), 2554–2556 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42(32), 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cecchi-Pestellini, C.

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clarisse, L.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarmann, T.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Clerbaux, C.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coheur, P.-F.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cortesi, U.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Del Bianco, S.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delbouille, L.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Dinelli, B. M.

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42(32), 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudhia, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Dudhia, V. L. Jay, and C. D. Rodgers, “Microwindow selection for high-spectral-resolution sounders,” Appl. Opt. 41(18), 3665–3673 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehhalt, D.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Endemann, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Fischer, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Fisher, R. A.

R. A. Fisher, “The logic of inductive inference,” J.R. Stat. Soc. 98(1), 39–54 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J. M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funke, B.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gai, M.

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

George, M.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gessner, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Hadji-Lazaro, J.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herbin, H.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hopfner, M.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höpfner, M.

Hurtmans, D.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jay, V. L.

Kleinert, A.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Koopman, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Kyrölä, E.

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langen, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Lopez-Puertas, M.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Magnani, L.

M. Carlotti and L. Magnani, “Two-dimensional sensitivity analysis of MIPAS observations,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5340–5357 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, P. E.

Mosner, P.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Nett, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Oelhaf, H.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Palchetti, L.

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pascale, E.

Payne, V.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perron, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Piccolo, C.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pommier, M.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prosperi, M.

Raspollini, P.

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “Optimal use of the information provided by indirect measurements of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Opt. Express 17(7), 4944–4958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, E. Pascale, M. Prosperi, P. Raspollini, and B. M. Dinelli, “Comparison of measurements made with two different instruments of the same atmospheric vertical profile,” Appl. Opt. 42(32), 6465–6473 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Razavi, A.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Remedios, J. J.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ridolfi, M.

S. Ceccherini and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Variance-covariance matrix and averaging kernels for the Levenberg-Marquardt solution of the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 3131–3139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodgers, C. D.

Santurri, L.

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stiller, G.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

M. Ridolfi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. von Clarmann, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, M. Höpfner, P. E. Morris, P. Raspollini, G. Stiller, and R. J. Wells, “Optimized forward model and retrieval scheme for MIPAS near-real-time data processing,” Appl. Opt. 39(8), 1323–1340 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turquety, S.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verronen, P. T.

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

von Clarmann, T.

Wells, R. J.

Wespes, C.

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

L. Palchetti, G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, and S. Del Bianco, “Measurement of the water vapour vertical profile and of the Earth’s outgoing far infrared flux,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(11), 2885–2894 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Raspollini, C. Belotti, A. Burgess, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, S. Ceccherini, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, J. M. Flaud, B. Funke, M. Hopfner, M. Lopez-Puertas, V. Payne, C. Piccolo, J. J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, and R. Spang, “MIPAS level 2 operational analysis,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 5605–5630 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, C. Belotti, B. Carli, P. Raspollini, and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7(5), 1435–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, P. T. Verronen, and E. Kyrölä, “Technical Note: Continuity of MIPAS-ENVISAT operational ozone data quality from full- to reduced-spectral-resolution operation,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2201–2212 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ceccherini, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, P. Raspollini, and B. Carli, “IASI-METOP and MIPAS-ENVISAT data fusion,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(10), 4689–4698 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Clerbaux, A. Boynard, L. Clarisse, M. George, J. Hadji-Lazaro, H. Herbin, D. Hurtmans, M. Pommier, A. Razavi, S. Turquety, C. Wespes, and P.-F. Coheur, “Monitoring of atmospheric composition using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9(16), 6041–6054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Fischer, M. Birk, C. Blom, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, T. Clarmann, L. Delbouille, A. Dudhia, D. Ehhalt, M. Endemann, J. M. Flaud, R. Gessner, A. Kleinert, R. Koopman, J. Langen, M. Lopez-Puertas, P. Mosner, H. Nett, H. Oelhaf, G. Perron, J. Remedios, M. Ridolfi, G. Stiller, and R. Zander, “MIPAS: an instrument for atmospheric and climate research,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(8), 2151–2188 (2008).

S. Ceccherini and M. Ridolfi, “Technical Note: Variance-covariance matrix and averaging kernels for the Levenberg-Marquardt solution of the retrieval of atmospheric vertical profiles,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(6), 3131–3139 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat.

S. Ceccherini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, and P. Raspollini, “Retrieval of the vertical column of an atmospheric constituent from data fusion of remote sensing measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 111(3), 507–514 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Bianchini, B. Carli, U. Cortesi, S. Del Bianco, M. Gai, and L. Palchetti, “Test of far infrared atmospheric spectroscopy using wide-band balloon borne measurements of the upwelling radiance,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 109(6), 1030–1042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, G. Bazzini, E. Castelli, C. Cecchi-Pestellini, S. Del Bianco, B. M. Dinelli, M. Gai, L. Magnani, M. Ridolfi, and L. Santurri, “MARC: a code for the retrieval of atmospheric parameters from millimetre-wave limb measurements,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. 105(3), 476–491 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.R. Stat. Soc.

R. A. Fisher, “The logic of inductive inference,” J.R. Stat. Soc. 98(1), 39–54 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Vol. 2 of Series on Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000).

R. E. Kalman, “Algebraic aspects of the generalized inverse of a rectangular matrix,” in Proceedings of Advanced Seminar on Generalized Inverse and Applications, M. Z. Nashed, ed. Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1976, pp. 111–124.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Components Fiixi2 of the relative MQQ as a function of altitude for the IASI measurement (blue line), the MIPAS measurement (red line) and their data fusion (black line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative information distribution of an OR MIPAS measurement of ozone calculated for the original retrieval grid (black line and squares) and degrading the retrieval grid of a factor two (red line and squares) and of a factor four (green line and squares). The information distribution provides an assessment of the acquired information and weakly depends on the retrieval grid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative information distribution for orbit #8271 (a), acquired at FR, and for orbit #29184 (b), acquired at OR, as a function of altitude and orbital coordinate. Notice the factor five between the color scales for the two orbits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative information distribution fixi2 as a function of altitude averaged along the orbit for FR measurements (orbit #8271 red line) and for OR measurements (orbit #29184 black line).

Equations (51)

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χ 2 ( x )= ( y 1 x ) 2 σ 1 2 + ( y 2 x ) 2 σ 2 2 .
x ^ = y 1 σ 1 2 + y 2 σ 2 2 1 σ 1 2 + 1 σ 2 2 ,
1 σ 2 = 1 σ 1 2 + 1 σ 2 2 .
S x =( σ 1 2 0 ... 0 0 σ 2 2 ... 0 ... ... ... ... 0 0 ... σ n 2 ).
S x 1 =( 1/ σ 1 2 0 ... 0 0 1/ σ 2 2 ... 0 ... ... ... ... 0 0 ... 1/ σ n 2 )=( Q 1 0 ... 0 0 Q 2 ... 0 ... ... ... ... 0 0 ... Q n ).
Q= i=1 n Q i =tr( S x 1 ),
y=F(x)
σ= ε k ,
Q= 1 σ 2 = k 2 ε 2 .
y 1 = F 1 (x)
y 2 = F 2 (x).
χ 2 ( x )= ( y 1 F 1 ( x ) ) 2 ε 1 2 + ( y 2 F 2 ( x ) ) 2 ε 2 2 .
k 1 ( y 1 F 1 ( x ^ ) ) ε 1 2 + k 2 ( y 2 F 2 ( x ^ ) ) ε 2 2 =0,
σ 2 = g 1 2 ε 1 2 + g 2 2 ε 2 2 ,
Q= 1 σ 2 = k 1 2 ε 1 2 + k 2 2 ε 2 2 .
y=F( x ).
χ 2 ( x )= ( yF( x ) ) T S y 1 ( yF( x ) ).
K T S y 1 ( yF( x ^ ) )=0,
σ=Gε,
S x = σ σ T =G S y G T ,
G= ( K T S y 1 K ) 1 K T S y 1 .
S x = ( K T S y 1 K ) 1 .
Q= i=1 n 1 λ i 2 =tr( Λ 1 )
Q=tr( Λ 1 )=tr( U T S x 1 U)=tr( S x 1 ).
Q=tr( K T S y 1 K ).
P( y|x )= 1 ( 2π ) m/2 | S y | 1/2 exp{ 1 2 ( yF( x ) ) T S y 1 ( yF( x ) ) },
F= P( y|x ) ( lnP( y|x ) x ) ( lnP( y|x ) x ) T dy
F= K T S y 1 [ P( y|x ) ( yF( x ) ) ( yF( x ) ) T dy ] S y 1 K= K T S y 1 K,
Q=tr( F )= i=1 n F ii .
F ii = ( K T S y 1 K ) ii = ( K T S y 1/2 S y 1/2 K ) ii = j=1 m ( S y 1/2 K ) ji 2 0,
F ii = j=1 m 1 + m 2 ( S y 1/2 K ) ji 2 = j=1 m 1 ( S y1 1/2 K 1 ) ji 2 + j=1 m 2 ( S y2 1/2 K 2 ) ji 2 .
F ii = l,j=1 m K li ( S y 1 ) lj K ji l,j=1 m Δ y l Δ x i ( S y 1 ) lj Δ y j Δ x i = 1 ( Δ x i ) 2 l,j=1 m Δ y l ( S y 1 ) lj Δ y j .
F ii x i 2 = 1 ( Δ x i x i ) 2 l,j=1 m Δ y l ( S y 1 ) lj Δ y j .
Q r = i=1 n F ii x i 2 .
c( x )= ( yF( x ) ) T S y 1 ( yF( x ) )+R( x ).
2 K T S y 1 ( yF( x ^ ) )+ R( x ) x | x= x ^ =0.
G= ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 K T S y 1 ,
S x = ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 K T S y 1 K ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 .
A= x ^ x = x ^ y y x =GK= ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 K T S y 1 K.
A T S x 1 A= K T S y 1 K=F.
A T S x # A= K T S y 1 K=F.
Q=tr( K T S y 1 K )=tr( A T S x # A ).
S x = ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 ,
F= K T S y 1 K=( K T S y 1 K+R )A= S x 1 A.
f i = F ii Δ z i 2
q= i=1 n f i Δ z i ,
q r = i=1 n f i x i 2 Δ z i ,
A T S x # A= K T S y 1 K,
A T S x # A=( K T S y 1 K+R ) ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 A T S x # A ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 ( K T S y 1 K+R ).
A ( K T S y 1 K+R ) 1 = S x .
A T S x # A=( K T S y 1 K+R ) S x S x # S x ( K T S y 1 K+R )= =( K T S y 1 K+R ) S x ( K T S y 1 K+R ),

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