Abstract

Plasmonic bowtie antennas made of doped silicon can operate as plasmonic resonators at terahertz (THz) frequencies and provide large field enhancement close to their gap. We demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically that the field confinement close to the surface of the antenna enables the detection of ultrathin (100 nm) inorganic films, about 3750 times thinner than the free space wavelength. Based on model calculations, we conclude that the detection sensitivity and its variation with the thickness of the deposited layer are related to both the decay of the local THz field profile around the antenna and the local field enhancement in the gap of the bowtie antenna. This large field enhancement has the potential to improve the detection limits of plasmon-based biological and chemical sensors.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
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  9. S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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  22. V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (7)

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, R. Beigang, and D. Grischkowsky, “Sensitivity increase for coating thickness determination using THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11456–11463 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, A. Berrier, S. A. Maier, J. A. Sánchez-Gil, and J. G. Rivas, “Scattering efficiency and near field enhancement of active semiconductor plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2797–2807 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. You, J.-Y. Lu, J.-H. Liou, C.-P. Yu, H.-Z. Chen, T. A. Liu, and J. L. Peng, “Subwavelength film sensing based on terahertz anti-resonant reflecting hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19353–19360 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aroca, R.

E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

Berdel, K.

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

Bolívar, P. H.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bonn, M.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosserhoff, A.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brucherseifer, M.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Büttner, R.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-Z.

Cornelius, T. W.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Maagt, P.

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ekmekci, E.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, K.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fukasawa, R.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

García-Etxarri, A.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giannini, V.

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gómez-Rivas, J.

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Guan, Z.

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haring Bolivar, P.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haring Bolívar, P.

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartstein, A.

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, E.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikari, T.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Isaac, T. H.

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeanmaire, D. L.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E.

E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. L.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Karim, S.

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keilmann, F.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, K.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kirtley, J. R.

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kohjiro, S.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kundu, J.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lamy de la Chapelle, M.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Le, F.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liou, J.-H.

Liu, M.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. A.

Lu, J.-Y.

Maier, S. A.

Matsuyama, K.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mondia, J. P.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neubrech, F.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pellemans, H. P. M.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. L.

Pucci, A.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shan, J.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, N.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Strikwerda, S. C.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Theuer, M.

Toury, T.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, J. C.

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ulbricht, R.

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Berrier, R. Ulbricht, M. Bonn, and J. G. Rivas, “Ultrafast active control of localized surface plasmon resonances in silicon bowtie antennas,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23226–23235 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Wakatsuki, A.

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, D.

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

You, B.

Yu, C.-P.

Zhang, X.

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zotova, I. B.

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

F. Le, D. W. Brandl, Y. A. Urzhumov, H. Wang, J. Kundu, N. J. Halas, J. Aizpurua, and P. Nordlander, “Metallic nanoparticle arrays: a common substrate for both surface-enhanced Raman scattering and surface-enhanced infrared absorption,” ACS Nano 2(4), 707–718 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

N. Shimizu, K. Kikuchi, T. Ikari, K. Matsuyama, A. Wakatsuki, S. Kohjiro, and R. Fukasawa, “Absorption spectra of smoke emitted from heated nylon fabric measured with continuous-wave sub-terahertz spectrometer,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(3), 032401 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. H. Isaac, W. L. Barnes, and E. Hendry, “Determining the terahertz optical properties of subwavelength films using semiconductor surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 241115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, S. C. Strikwerda, M. Liu, J. P. Mondia, E. Ekmekci, K. Fan, D. L. Kaplan, W. J. Padilla, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and F. G. Omenetto, “Performance enhancement of terahertz metamaterials on ultrathin substrates for sensing applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(26), 261909 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gómez Rivas, M. Kuttge, H. Kurz, P. H. Bolívar, and J. A. Sanchez-Gil, “Low frequency active surface plasmon optics on semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(8), 082106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

H. Sun, Y. J. Ding, and I. B. Zotova, “THz spectroscopy by frequency-tuning monochromatic THz source: from single species to gas mixtures,” IEEE Sens. J. 10(3), 621–629 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

K. Berdel, J. Gómez-Rivas, P. Haring Bolívar, P. de Maagt, and H. Kurz, “Temperature dependence of the permittivity and loss tangent of high-permittivity materials at terahertz frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53(4), 1266–1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. (1)

D. L. Jeanmaire and R. P. Van Duyne, “Surface raman spectroelectrochemistry: Part I. Heterocyclic, aromatic, and aliphatic amines adsorbed on the anodized silver electrode,” J. Electroanal. Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 84(1), 1–20 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

E. Johnson and R. Aroca, “Surface-enhanced infrared spectroscopy of monolayers,” J. Phys. Chem. 99(23), 9325–9330 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

S. J. Lee, Z. Guan, H. Xu, and M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and nanogeometry: the plasmonic origin of SERS,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(49), 17985–17988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectros. (1)

M. Moskovits, “Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: a brief retrospective,” J. Raman Spectros. 36(6-7), 485–496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

M. Pelton, J. Aizpurua, and G. Bryant, “Metal-nanoparticle plasmonics,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(3), 136–159 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. J. Huber, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Terahertz near-field nanoscopy of mobile carriers in single semiconductor nanodevices,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 3766–3770 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

P. Haring Bolivar, M. Brucherseifer, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, and R. Büttner, “Label-free probing of genes by time-domain terahertz sensing,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3815–3821 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Saxler, J. Gómez-Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolívar, and H. Kurz, “Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range,” Phys. Rev. B 69(15), 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Hartstein, J. R. Kirtley, and J. C. Tsang, “Enhancement of the infrared absorption from molecular monolayers with thin metal overlayers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45(3), 201–204 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. Neubrech, A. Pucci, T. W. Cornelius, S. Karim, A. García-Etxarri, and J. Aizpurua, “Resonant plasmonic and vibrational coupling in a tailored nanoantenna for infrared detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(15), 157403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

A. Pucci, F. Neubrech, D. Weber, S. Hong, T. Toury, and M. Lamy de la Chapelle, “Surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy using gold nanoantennas,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 247(8), 2071–2074 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. M. Fischer, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, “Chemical recognition with broadband THz spectroscopy,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1592–1604 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

R. Ulbricht, E. Hendry, J. Shan, T. F. Heinz, and M. Bonn, “Carrier dynamics in semiconductors studied with time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(2), 543–586 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, Elsevier (1998).

S. Adachi, Handbook on physical properties of semiconductors, Vol. 1 (Kluwer, 2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Schematic drawing of a silicon bowtie antenna covered with a TiO2 conformal layer. The inset (i) shows an optical microscopy image of a fabricated silicon bowtie antenna, the inset (i) represents a schematic drawing of the vertical cross section in the middle of the bowtie antenna; b) Far-field extinction of a collection of bowtie antennas without coverage (black line), with a 100 nm TiO2 layer (red line) and with a 100 nm SiO2 layer (blue line); c) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) for an individual doped silicon antenna with a 200 nm layer of SiO2 (blue line) and TiO2 (red line) deposited on the antenna surface; d) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) for an individual doped silicon antenna with a 100 nm layer of SiO2 or TiO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Extinction, defined as (1-Transmission), of a collection of doped silicon bowtie antennas as a function of the thickness of the deposited SiO2 layer; b) FDTD calculated extinction cross section (ECS) of an individual doped silicon bowtie antenna covered with SiO2 layers of different thickness ; c) Shift of the resonance frequency for the same situation as in a) and b) as a function of the top layer thickness, as obtained from experiments (red circles) and from FDTD calculations (black squares); d) Sensitivity of the bowtie antenna expressed in frequency shift per nanometer of film thickness, estimated from the experimental (red circles) and calculated (black squares) shift of the resonance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Schematics of the bowtie antenna in top view (left) and cross sectional view (right). The direction of the relevant axes are indicated. The blue dot on the cross sectional view illustrates the position y = z = 0 and x = 1 μm; b) Field intensity enhancement (FIE) obtained with FDTD calculations for a bowtie antenna without coating along the z direction at x = 1 μm. The case of a silicon antenna (blue line) is compared to that of a gold antenna with the same geometry (red line). The position z = 0 μm corresponds to the surface of the silicon antenna; c) FIE obtained from FDTD calculations in a bowtie antenna without coating along the x direction, at z = 0 μm. The position z = 0 μm is located at the middle of the antenna height, i.e, at 0.75 μm from the interface with the quartz substrate. The position x = 0 μm corresponds to the tip of one of the monomers of the bowtie antenna. Doped silicon antennas (blue line) and gold antennas (red line) with the same geometry are compared. The inset is a closed view of the decay of the field for x between 300 nm and 2 μm; d) Field profile for an antenna made of gold calculated by FDTD in the middle plane of the antenna at 0.8THz, the colormap is plotted in logarithmic scale; e) Field profile for an antenna made of doped silicon calculated by FDTD in the middle plane of the antenna at 0.8THz, the colormap is plotted in logarithmic scale.

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