Abstract

We propose a novel photon number resolving detector structure with large dynamic range. It consists of the series connection of N superconducting nanowires, each connected in parallel to an integrated resistor. Photon absorption in a wire switches its current to the parallel resistor producing a voltage pulse and the sum of these voltages is measured at the output. The combination of this structure and a high input impedance preamplifier result in linear, high fidelity, and fast photon detection in the range from one to several tens of photons.

© 2012 OSA

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  3. N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, “Direct measurement of photon number statistics at telecom wavelengths using a charge integration photon detector,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3069–3074 (2007).
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  5. A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Baek, J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Kardyna?, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, “Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujiwara and M. Sasaki, “Direct measurement of photon number statistics at telecom wavelengths using a charge integration photon detector,” Appl. Opt. 46(16), 3069–3074 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anant, V.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, B.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Baek, J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, J.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitauld, D.

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J. T.

L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, “Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dauler, E. A.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, “Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Riedmatten, H.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Divochiy, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, S.

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, S. N.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dzardanov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eisert, J.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eraerds, P.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feito, A.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fitch, M. J.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franson, J. D.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frucci, G.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Gaggero, A.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

Goltsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamhuis, G. J.

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, S. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Höfling, S.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, B. C.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jahanmirinejad, S.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, L. A.

L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, “Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kardynal, B. E.

B. E. Kardyna?, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaurova, N.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitaygorsky, J.

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, P.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leoni, R.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lermer, M.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lévy, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lipatov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

Lundeen, J. S.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattioli, F.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Milburn, G. J.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A. J.

Minaeva, O.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Minár, J.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

B. Baek, J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Lita, A. J. Miller, and S. W. Nam, “Counting near-infrared single-photons with 95% efficiency,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3032–3040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Natarajan, C. M.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, K.

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O’Connor, J. A.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okunev, O.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pittman, T. B.

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Plenio, M. B.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pomarico, E.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pottapenjara, V. K.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pregnell, K. L.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ralph, T. C.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reiger, E.

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosfjord, K. M.

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahin, D.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sangouard, N.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanguinetti, B.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanjines, R.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Schouten, R.

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, V.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semenov, A.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

B. E. Kardyna?, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silberhorn, Ch.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, C.

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sprengers, J. P.

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stern, J. A.

B. Baek, J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, M. G.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ureña, E. B.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B. M.

Walmsley, I. A.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warburton, R. J.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Williams, C.

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

B. E. Kardyna?, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zijlstra, T.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zwiller, V.

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

G. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(6), 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Baek, J. A. Stern, and S. W. Nam, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector in an optical cavity for front-side illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Nötzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(15), 151108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Tanner, C. M. Natarajan, V. K. Pottapenjara, J. A. O’Connor, R. J. Warburton, R. H. Hadfield, B. Baek, S. Nam, S. N. Dorenbos, E. B. Ureña, T. Zijlstra, T. M. Klapwijk, and V. Zwiller, “Enhanced telecom wavelength single-photon detection with NbTiN superconducting nanowires on oxidized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (2)

J. Kitaygorsky, S. Dorenbos, E. Reiger, R. Schouten, V. Zwiller, and R. Sobolewski, “HEMT-based readout technique for dark- and photon-count studies in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 19(3), 346 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 17(2), 581 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Goltsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol'tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Kardyna?, Z. L. Yuan, and A. J. Shields, “An avalanche-photodiode-based photon-number-resolving detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 425–428 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, Ch. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5(1), 27–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409(6816), 46–52 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, S. Jahanmirinejad, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, and A. Fiore, “Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

N. Sangouard, C. Simon, J. Miná?, H. Zbinden, H. de Riedmatten, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement distribution with single-photon sources,” Phys. Rev. A 76(5), 050301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, E. A. Dauler, and J. T. Chang, “Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 062325 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fitch, B. C. Jacobs, T. B. Pittman, and J. D. Franson, “Photon-number resolution using time-multiplexed single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 68(4), 043814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

P. Kok, K. Nemoto, T. C. Ralph, J. P. Dowling, and G. J. Milburn, “Linear optical quantum computing with photonic qubits,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79(1), 135–174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Eraerds, E. Pomarico, J. Zhang, B. Sanguinetti, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 103105 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, S. Pan, M. E. Grein, R. J. Molnar, R. E. Correa, M. G. Bawendi, K. K. Berggren, J. D. Moores, and D. M. Boroson, “Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” in Proceedings of 24th Annual Meeting of IEEE Photonics Society, 2011, pp.350–351.

W. H. P. Pernice, C. Schuck, O. Minaeva, M. Li, G. N. Goltsman, A. V. Sergienko, and H. X. Tang, “High speed travelling wave single-photon detectors with near-unity quantum efficiency,” arXiv:1108.5299, (2011).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electrical circuit and layout schematics for the implementation of SND structures. The voltage source in series with a bias resistor provides the biasing of the detector through the DC arm of the bias-T. The RF arm is connected to the amplifier circuit. N nanowires, each with a resistor in parallel, are connected in series. The voltages produced by photon absorption in different sections are summed up in the output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Equivalent circuit model for the firing and unfiring sections of the SND. The DC port of the bias-T is modeled as a constant current source Ib and the AC port is modeled as a capacitor CbT (20nF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-thermal simulation for a firing section of an SND, biased with Ib = 0.99Ic, and RL = 1MΩ. (a) Temperature map vs. time along the switching wire after photon detection in a N = 10 elements SND. (b) Time-dependent resistance for N = 10. (c) The same temperature map for N = 100. (d) Time-dependent resistance for N = 100.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transient current flowing through the (a) firing, If and (b) unfiring, Iuf section of an SND with N = 10, RL = 50Ω, Ib = 0.99Ic, Rp = 80Ω after absorption of n = 1-10 photons. (c) Corresponding output voltage Vout. Transient current (d) If and (e) Iuf with the ideal 1MΩ load readout, which are independent of the number of absorbed photons. The large load impedance decouples firing and unfiring sections. (f) The related output voltage with RL = 1MΩ. The dashed lines are exponential fits to the rise/fall times, as explained in section 6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transient response of an SND with N = 100, Ib = 0.99Ic, Rp = 80Ω, and RL = 1MΩ. (a) Current flowing through the firing If, and unfiring Iuf, sections, the parallel resistor IRp, and the load Iout. (b) Output voltage of the SND when n = 1,2,3 photons are absorbed. (c) Peak output voltages as a function of the number of absorbed photons together with a power-law fit (solid lines) plotted in log-log scale as Vout = Anα. For the case of the high impedance load (1MΩ), α = 1 both for N = 10 and N = 100, (red squares and blue circles, respectively). The response is very close to linear (α = 0.9) even with the 50Ω load (green triangles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Equivalent circuits used to extract the time constants corresponding to the (a) inductances of the firing branches, (b) inductances of the unfiring branches, and (c) the total inductance after the wires have switched back to the superconducting state. (d), (e) The calculated time constants of the N = 10 elements SND with RL = 50Ω and RL = 1MΩ, respectively. Increasing RL improves the response time dramatically, without causing latching.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output voltage of an SND with N series section each connected in parallel to Rp = 40Ω and biased at Ib = 0.99Ic, considering the effect of C = 180fF input capacitor in parallel to the load resistor. (a) N = 10, and RL = 10kΩ when n = 1,2,…,10 photons are detected. The inset shows the linearity of the peak output voltages as a function of the number of detected photons together with a power-law fit (solid line) plotted in log-log scale as Vout = Anα where α = 0.96 (b) N = 100, and RL = 1MΩ. The inset shows the power-law fit of n = 1-100 detected photons with excellent linearity of α = 0.99.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Probability of detecting n = 1-10 photons when n = 1-10photons hit the SND with N = 100 detecting elements, with different values of QE = 0.8, 0.9, and 1. (b) Calculated average number of detected photons <ndet> as a function of the average number of incident photons <ninc>, evenly distributed to N = 100 detecting sections of the SND with unity QE (blue circles), compared with ideal response, the light blue line with slope = 1.

Equations (1)

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J 2 ρ+κ 2 T x 2 α d ( T T sub )= ( cT ) t ,

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