Abstract

We introduce genetic algorithms (GA) for wavefront control to focus light through highly scattering media. We theoretically and experimentally compare GAs to existing phase control algorithms and show that GAs are particularly advantageous in low signal-to-noise environments.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Cui, “Parallel wavefront optimization method for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 870–872 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430, 755430-10 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. L. Haupt and S. E. Haupt, Practical Genetic Algorithms, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
  15. U. Mahlab, J. Shamir, and H. J. Caulfield, “Genetic algorithm for optical pattern recognition,” Opt. Lett. 16(9), 648–650 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. B. Conkey, A. Brown, A. Caravaca, and R. Piestun, "Genetic algorithm optimization of phase masks for focusing light through turbid media," in Novel Techniques in Microscopy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper NTuA5.
  17. O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Cui, “Parallel wavefront optimization method for focusing light through random scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 870–872 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

M. Cui and C. Yang, “Implementation of a digital optical phase conjugation system and its application to study the robustness of turbidity suppression by phase conjugation,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3444–3455 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430, 755430-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Aegerter, C. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430, 755430-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burns, L. D.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caulfield, H. J.

Cižmár, T.

T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, M.

Dholakia, K.

T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dougherty, T. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, K. K.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomer, C. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Henderson, B. W.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. L.

Jori, G.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, O.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kessel, D.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbelik, M.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahlab, U.

Mazilu, M.

T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moan, J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mosk, A. P.

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukamel, E. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolenko, V.

V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popoff, S. M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poskanzer, K. E.

V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psaltis, D.

C. L. Hsieh, Y. Pu, R. Grange, and D. Psaltis, “Digital phase conjugation of second harmonic radiation emitted by nanoparticles in turbid media,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12283–12290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pu, Y.

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamir, J.

Silberberg, Y.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Small, E.

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vellekoop, I. M.

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430, 755430-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Scattered light fluorescence microscopy: imaging through turbid layers,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1245–1247 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Focusing coherent light through opaque strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2309–2311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei Ho, E. T.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilt, B. A.

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yaqoob, Z.

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuste, R.

V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

B. A. Wilt, L. D. Burns, E. T. Wei Ho, K. K. Ghosh, E. A. Mukamel, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Advances in light microscopy for neuroscience,” Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 32(1), 435–506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, and Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(12), 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

V. Nikolenko, K. E. Poskanzer, and R. Yuste, “Two-photon photostimulation and imaging of neural circuits,” Nat. Methods 4(11), 943–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

Z. Yaqoob, D. Psaltis, M. S. Feld, and C. Yang, “Optical phase conjugation for turbidity suppression in biological samples,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 110–115 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. ?ižmár, M. Mazilu, and K. Dholakia, “In situ wavefront correction and its application to micromanipulation,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 388–394 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Katz, E. Small, Y. Bromberg, and Y. Silberberg, “Focusing and compression of ultrashort pulses through scattering media,” Nat. Photonics 5(6), 372–377 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

I. M. Vellekoop and A. P. Mosk, “Phase control algorithms for focusing light through turbid media,” Opt. Commun. 281(11), 3071–3080 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(10), 100601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. M. Vellekoop and C. M. Aegerter, “Focusing light through living tissue,” Proc. SPIE 7554, 755430, 755430-10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. L. Haupt and S. E. Haupt, Practical Genetic Algorithms, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2004).

D. B. Conkey, A. Brown, A. Caravaca, and R. Piestun, "Genetic algorithm optimization of phase masks for focusing light through turbid media," in Novel Techniques in Microscopy, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper NTuA5.

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