Abstract

Liquid crystal (LC) lenses with circular hole-patterned electrodes possess the excellent capabilities of tunable focal lengths. In this paper, we demonstrate the performance of a specific LC lens with tunable coaxial bifocals (CB) synthesized via photopolymerization of LC cells. The characteristics of tunable CB are clearly exhibited when the voltage applied is continuously increased, eventually disappearing until only one focus is left when significantly higher voltages are applied. We simultaneously demonstrate two types of tunable CB LC lenses fabricated via different photocurable processes and determine their optical functions.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Somalingam, K. Dressbach, M. Hain, S. Stankovic, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Effective spherical aberration compensation by use of a nematic liquid-crystal device,” Appl. Opt. 43(13), 2722–2729 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. B. Yu, G. Y. Zhou, F. K. Chau, F. W. Lee, S. H. Wang, and H. M. Leung, “A liquid-filled tunable double-focus microlens,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4782–4790 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. J. Lee, Y. W. Kim, Y. K. Kim, C. J. Yu, J. S. Gwag, and J. H. Kim, “Microlens array fabricated using electrohydrodynamic instability and surface properties,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10673–10678 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

Y. J. Lee, Y. W. Kim, Y. K. Kim, C. J. Yu, J. S. Gwag, and J. H. Kim, “Microlens array fabricated using electrohydrodynamic instability and surface properties,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10673–10678 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Somalingam, K. Dressbach, M. Hain, S. Stankovic, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Effective spherical aberration compensation by use of a nematic liquid-crystal device,” Appl. Opt. 43(13), 2722–2729 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ayräs, P.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, S.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chau, F. K.

Choi, H.

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Craen, P.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Date, M.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

del Valle, S.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dias, D.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dressbach, K.

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujioka, S.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glöckner, R.

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gwag, J. S.

Haddock, J. N.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hain, M.

S. Somalingam, K. Dressbach, M. Hain, S. Stankovic, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Effective spherical aberration compensation by use of a nematic liquid-crystal device,” Appl. Opt. 43(13), 2722–2729 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honma, M.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. J.

C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. Y.

C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Kim, Y. K.

Kim, Y. W.

Kippelen, B.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knittel, J.

Lee, B.

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, F. W.

Lee, Y. J.

Leung, H. M.

Li, G.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lub, J.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, S.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D. L.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, G. R.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nose, T.

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richter, H.

Sato, S.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwiegerling, J.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheu, C. R.

C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Somalingam, S.

Stallinga, S.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stankovic, S.

S. Somalingam, K. Dressbach, M. Hain, S. Stankovic, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Effective spherical aberration compensation by use of a nematic liquid-crystal device,” Appl. Opt. 43(13), 2722–2729 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stapert, H. R.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

S. Somalingam, K. Dressbach, M. Hain, S. Stankovic, T. Tschudi, J. Knittel, and H. Richter, “Effective spherical aberration compensation by use of a nematic liquid-crystal device,” Appl. Opt. 43(13), 2722–2729 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Zande, B. M. I.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verstegen, E. J. K.

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. H.

Williby, G.

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wippermann, F. C.

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. J.

Yu, H. B.

Zhou, G. Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

H. R. Stapert, S. del Valle, E. J. K. Verstegen, B. M. I. van der Zande, J. Lub, and S. Stallinga, “Photoreplicated anisotropic liquid-crystalline lenses for aberration control and dual-layer readout of optical discs,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 13(9), 732–738 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable-focus flat liquid crystal spherical lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(23), 4789–4791 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, “Tunable electronic lens using a gradient polymer network liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 22–24 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (5)

S. Suyama, M. Date, and H. Takada, “Three-dimensional display system with dual-frequency liquid-crystal varifocal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39(Part 1, No. 2A), 480–484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Kawamura, and S. Sato, “Image formation using liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(10A), 6776–6777 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(Part 2, No. 5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J. H. Park, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Depth-enhanced integral imaging with a stepped lens array or a composite lens array for three-dimensional display,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(8A), 5330–5336 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, S. Fujioka, M. Honma, T. Nose, and S. Sato, “Dependence of optical properties on the device and material parameters in liquid crystal microlenses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 1, No. 9A), 4668–4672 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (1)

C. J. Hsu, C. Y. Huang, and C. R. Sheu, “Experimental analysis to avoid migrating zigzag lines occurring in homogeneously aligned liquid crystal lenses with a hole-patterned electrode,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) 544(1), 185–191 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Hain, R. Glöckner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. C. Wippermann, P. Schreiber, A. Bräuer, and P. Craen, “Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications,” Proc. SPIE 6501, 650109, 650109-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-section scheme of a liquid crystal (LC) lens with a circularly hole-patterned electrode. The hole-patterned electrode can be constructed with transparent or opaque conductive films such as indium tin oxide (ITO) or Al. The cell consists of a homogeneous alignment of LCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schemes of a photo-mask and the LC cell configuration for the fabrication of tunable CB LC lens via photopolymerization: (a) a homemade photo-mask from a printed slide film has a clear circular area approximately 3.5 mm in diameter; and (b) CB LC lens structure with a circularly patterned electrode. The photo-mask comes into contact with the cell during UV exposure under an applied voltage of 100 Vrms.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference patterns for Type-A and Type-B LC lenses. (a) Type-A LC lens after UV exposure for 2 minutes. No interference pattern was detected in the cell without an applied voltage. The dark circle in the center of the LC cell after UV exposure represents the boundary of the UV-exposed area. (b) Type-B LC lens after UV exposure for 2.5 minutes, with other cell conditions the same as in Fig. 3(a). An intrinsic interference pattern can be seen in the cell without an applied voltage, indicating the existence of an intrinsic focus. The symbol on the right side of the figure shows the rubbing direction (labeled R) in the cell and the polarization of a pair of crossed polarizers (labeled A and P) in the experimental setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference patterns for a Type-A LC lens under different applied voltages: (a) 0, (b) 40, (c) 100, and (d) 180 Vrms. The red circle indicates the boundary of the UV-exposed areas. The difference in interference patterns in the exposed and unexposed areas is significant. When the applied voltages were increased, the variations in the interference patterns in both areas were independent. When a higher voltage (140 Vrms) was used, the interference patterns in both areas gradually merged into a single interference pattern. The symbol on the right side of figure indicates the rubbing direction (labeled R) in the cell and the polarization of a pair of crossed polarizers (labeled A and P) in the experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical focuses for a Type-A LC lens at 40 Vrms: (a) one focus located 33 cm away from the cell, and (b) the other focus located 80 cm away from the cell. The focal lengths were measured through experimental observations of the focal points of the expanded laser beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Characteristics of tunable CB for a Type-A LC lens under different applied voltages. At applied voltages below 30 Vrms, one tunable focus from an inner laser light was out of the focal length of 80 cm. At 40 Vrms, the properties of CB were observed. At 140 Vrms, only one focus was left in the cell.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Interference patterns for a Type-B LC lens under different applied voltages: (a) 0, (b) 30, (c) 100, and (d) 180 Vrms. The red circle indicates the boundary of the UV-exposed areas. An intrinsically fixed interference pattern is clearly seen in the exposed area after photopolymerization for 2.5 minutes. When the applied voltages increased, the interference patterns in the exposed area remained constant, whereas those in the unexposed area varied with the applied voltages. The symbol on the right side of the figure indicates the rubbing direction (labeled R) in the cell and the polarization of a pair of crossed polarizers (labeled A and P) in the experimental setup.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical focuses for a Type-B LC lens under an applied voltage of 30 Vrms: (a) one focus was located 42 cm away from the cell, and (b) the other was located 30 cm away from the cell. The focal lengths were measured through experimental observations of the focal points of the expanded laser beam.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Characteristics of a tunable CB for a Type-B LC lens under different applied voltages. An intrinsically fixed focus existed in the inner part of the cell after photopolymerization, regardless of the applied voltages. The variation in the other tunable focus with the applied voltages is similar to that of conventional tunable LC lenses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Scheme of an imaging system used to evaluate the capabilities of tunable CB LC lenses.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparisons of the imaging capabilities of a tunable Type-B LC lens in the imaging system: (a) without a Type-B LC lens; (b) with a Type-B LC lens but without an applied voltage; and (c) with a Type-B LC lens and an applied voltage of 100 Vrms. A blurred image was observed when no Type-B LC lens was used. When a Type-B LC lens was used but without an applied voltage, a clear image was observed in the central area. When a 100 Vrms voltage was applied with the Type-B LC lens, an overall clear image was obtained because the same focus was achieved in both areas.

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