Abstract

Amplitude decorrelation measurement is sensitive to transverse flow and immune to phase noise in comparison to Doppler and other phase-based approaches. However, the high axial resolution of OCT makes it very sensitive to the pulsatile bulk motion noise in the axial direction. To overcome this limitation, we developed split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of flow detection. The full OCT spectrum was split into several narrower bands. Inter-B-scan decorrelation was computed using the spectral bands separately and then averaged. The SSADA algorithm was tested on in vivo images of the human macula and optic nerve head. It significantly improved both SNR for flow detection and connectivity of microvascular network when compared to other amplitude-decorrelation algorithms.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3657–3666 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tam, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Characterization of single-file flow through human retinal parafoveal capillaries using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 781–793 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Mariampillai, M. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yu and Z. Chen, “Doppler variance imaging for three-dimensional retina and choroid angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016029 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2004

S. S. Hayreh, “Posterior ciliary artery circulation in health and disease: the Weisenfeld lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 749–757, 748 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Bressler, “Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness,” JAMA 291(15), 1900–1901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2000

P. J. Yim, P. L. Choyke, and R. M. Summers, “Gray-scale skeletonization of small vessels in magnetic resonance angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(6), 568–576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““'Coherence radar” and 'spectral radar'–new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. H. P. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Chirp optical coherence tomography of layered scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(3), 259–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

I. A. Hein and W. R. O’Brien., “Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(2), 84–102 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. G. Hoeks, T. G. J. Arts, P. J. Brands, and R. S. Reneman, “Comparison of the performance of the RF cross correlation and Doppler autocorrelation technique to estimate the mean velocity of simulated ultrasound signals,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19(9), 727–740 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
[PubMed]

1964

D. A. Robinson, “The mechanics of human saccadic eye movement,” J. Physiol. 174(2), 245–264 (1964).
[PubMed]

Akiba, M.

An, L.

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang and L. An, “Doppler optical micro-angiography for volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion in vivo,” Opt. Express 17(11), 8926–8940 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An and R. K. Wang, “In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11438–11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arend, O.

O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
[PubMed]

Arts, T. G. J.

A. P. G. Hoeks, T. G. J. Arts, P. J. Brands, and R. S. Reneman, “Comparison of the performance of the RF cross correlation and Doppler autocorrelation technique to estimate the mean velocity of simulated ultrasound signals,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19(9), 727–740 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Barry, S.

Baumann, B.

Blazek, V.

U. H. P. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Chirp optical coherence tomography of layered scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(3), 259–266 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Brands, P. J.

A. P. G. Hoeks, T. G. J. Arts, P. J. Brands, and R. S. Reneman, “Comparison of the performance of the RF cross correlation and Doppler autocorrelation technique to estimate the mean velocity of simulated ultrasound signals,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19(9), 727–740 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brennan, N. A.

Bressler, N. M.

N. M. Bressler, “Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness,” JAMA 291(15), 1900–1901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, F. Y.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T.

Chen, Z.

Chi, T. T.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M.

Choyke, P. L.

P. J. Yim, P. L. Choyke, and R. M. Summers, “Gray-scale skeletonization of small vessels in magnetic resonance angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(6), 568–576 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
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J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
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O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
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Fraser, S. E.

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R. H. W. Funk, “Blood supply of the retina,” Ophthalmic Res. 29(5), 320–325 (1997).
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Gorczynska, I.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Grulkowski, I.

Gryczynski, I.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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U. H. P. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Chirp optical coherence tomography of layered scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(3), 259–266 (1998).
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Harris, A.

O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
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G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““'Coherence radar” and 'spectral radar'–new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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S. S. Hayreh, “Posterior ciliary artery circulation in health and disease: the Weisenfeld lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 749–757, 748 (2004).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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I. A. Hein and W. R. O’Brien., “Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(2), 84–102 (1993).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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A. P. G. Hoeks, T. G. J. Arts, P. J. Brands, and R. S. Reneman, “Comparison of the performance of the RF cross correlation and Doppler autocorrelation technique to estimate the mean velocity of simulated ultrasound signals,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19(9), 727–740 (1993).
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Huang, D.

B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, A. Fawzi, O. Tan, J. Gil-Flamer, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow detection in diabetic patients by Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4061–4073 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Izatt, J. A.

Y. K. Tao, K. M. Kennedy, and J. A. Izatt, “Velocity-resolved 3D retinal microvessel imaging using single-pass flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4177–4188 (2009).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Jarvi, M.

Jiang, J.

Jonathan, E.

J. Enfield, E. Jonathan, and M. Leahy, “In vivo imaging of the microcirculation of the volar forearm using correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT),” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(5), 1184–1193 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1–2), 43–48 (1995).
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Khurana, M.

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Kim, S.

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L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
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L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
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Leahy, M. J.

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

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M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Lee, M.

J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P. P.

J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
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Leitgeb, R. A.

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Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ““'Coherence radar” and 'spectral radar'–new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
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Liou, H. L.

Liu, G.

Liu, H. L.

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
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Magnani, M.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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Nassif, N.

Nelson, J. S.

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I. A. Hein and W. R. O’Brien., “Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(2), 84–102 (1993).
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Park, B. H.

Peiretti, E.

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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Pierce, M. C.

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
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A. P. G. Hoeks, T. G. J. Arts, P. J. Brands, and R. S. Reneman, “Comparison of the performance of the RF cross correlation and Doppler autocorrelation technique to estimate the mean velocity of simulated ultrasound signals,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 19(9), 727–740 (1993).
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R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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Saunders, S.

R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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Schmitt, H. J.

U. H. P. Haberland, V. Blazek, and H. J. Schmitt, “Chirp optical coherence tomography of layered scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(3), 259–266 (1998).
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B. Potsaid, B. Baumann, D. Huang, S. Barry, A. E. Cable, J. S. Schuman, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20029–20048 (2010).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Schwartz, D. M.

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R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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Y. Wang, A. Fawzi, O. Tan, J. Gil-Flamer, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow detection in diabetic patients by Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4061–4073 (2009).
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M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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R. K. Wang and L. An, “Multifunctional imaging of human retina and choroid with 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 92-kHz line scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(5), 050503 (2011).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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Y. Wang, A. Fawzi, O. Tan, J. Gil-Flamer, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow detection in diabetic patients by Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4061–4073 (2009).
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Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, S. Saunders, and D. J. Wilson, “Optical microangiography provides depth-resolved images of directional ocular blood perfusion in posterior eye segment,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 020502 (2010).
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R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
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L. An, H. M. Subhush, D. J. Wilson, and R. K. Wang, “High-resolution wide-field imaging of retinal and choroidal blood perfusion with optical microangiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 026011 (2010).
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M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

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P. J. Yim, P. L. Choyke, and R. M. Summers, “Gray-scale skeletonization of small vessels in magnetic resonance angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(6), 568–576 (2000).
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J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
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Appl. Phys. Express

M. T. Tsai, T. T. Chi, H. L. Liu, F. Y. Chang, C. H. Yang, C. K. Lee, and C. C. Yang, “Microvascular imaging using swept-source optical coherence tomography with single-channel acquisition,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(9), 097001 (2011).
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Biomed. Opt. Express

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging

P. J. Yim, P. L. Choyke, and R. M. Summers, “Gray-scale skeletonization of small vessels in magnetic resonance angiography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 19(6), 568–576 (2000).
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IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

I. A. Hein and W. R. O’Brien., “Current time-domain methods for assessing tissue motion by analysis from reflected ultrasound echoes-a review,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 40(2), 84–102 (1993).
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Int. Ophthalmol.

J. Zhao, D. A. Frambach, P. P. Lee, M. Lee, and P. F. Lopez, “Delayed macular choriocapillary circulation in age-related macular degeneration,” Int. Ophthalmol. 19(1), 1–12 (1995).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

S. S. Hayreh, “Posterior ciliary artery circulation in health and disease: the Weisenfeld lecture,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(3), 749–757, 748 (2004).
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O. Arend, A. Remky, D. Evans, R. Stüber, and A. Harris, “Contrast sensitivity loss is coupled with capillary dropout in patients with diabetes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 38(9), 1819–1824 (1997).
[PubMed]

R. Flower, E. Peiretti, M. Magnani, L. Rossi, S. Serafini, Z. Gryczynski, and I. Gryczynski, “Observation of erythrocyte dynamics in the retinal capillaries and choriocapillaris using ICG-loaded erythrocyte ghost cells,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(12), 5510–5516 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Laatikainen and J. Larinkari, “Capillary-free area of the fovea with advancing age,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 16(12), 1154–1157 (1977).
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J Biophotonics

E. Jonathan, J. Enfield, and M. J. Leahy, “Correlation mapping method for generating microcirculation morphology from optical coherence tomography (OCT) intensity images,” J Biophotonics 4(9), 583–587 (2011).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the swept-source OCT system used to collect the 3D image cube for split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography in a live human fundus. PC = polarization controller. AD = analog-digital conversion.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrams of the modification of the OCT imaging resolution cell and the split-spectrum method used for this purpose. (A) The resolution cell in the current configuration can be modified into a new resolution cell by using band-pass filtering and split-spectrum methods. (B) Steps showing how the original 2D spectral interferogram I(x, k) was split into four new spectra I’(x, k) with smaller k bandwidth. “BW” and “bw” indicate the bandwidth of full-spectrum and Gaussian filters, respectively. The regions with non-zero values in the data block are indicated by the blue pattern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Flow chart showing the steps for removing a decorrelation frame with high bulk motion, using an OCT section across the optic nerve head as an example. (A) A series of 7 decorrelation frames (Dn) at one Y position. To avoid clutter, only frames D1, D4, and D7 are shown. Frame D4 (yellow arrow) showed high decorrelation in both flow (vessel) and non-flow (bulk) tissue, possibly due to saccadic eye movement. To detect bulk motion, the median decorrelation value in the first 30 pixels of the inner retina and disc (between two red lines) was determined. (B) Plot of median values from the 7 frames showed frame D4 as an outlier. The threshold (dotted blue line) was set at 0.15, two standard deviations above the mean median decorrelation value. (C) After removing frame D4, the remaining six decorrelation images were averaged. (D) The cleaned decorrelation image showed high contrast between flow pixels (bright areas in retinal vessels and choroid) and non-flow dark regions. (E) If frame D4 were not removed, the uncleaned decorrelation image showed less contrast between flow and non-flow pixels, which was evident by the lack of completely dark space between retinal vessels in the peripapillary areas (circled by dotted yellow lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo 3D volumetric [3.0 (x) × 3.0 (y) × 2.9 (z) mm] OCT of the optic nerve head in the right eye of a myopic individual. White bar, 500 µm. The images in the bottom panels have been cropped from 2.9 mm to 1.5 mm axially. (A) En face maximum reflectance intensity projection showed branches of the central retinal artery and vein (yellow arrows point to superior branches). (B) OCT cross-section at the plane marked by white dashed line in (A). (C) En face maximum decorrelation projection angiogram computed with the SSADA algorithm. It showed many orders of branching from the central retinal artery and vein, a dense capillary network in the disc, a cilioretinal artery (yellow arrow), and a near continuous sheet of choroidal vessels around the disc. (D) Decorrelation cross-section (same plane as B) showed blood flow in disc vessels (green arrows), peripapillary retinal vessels, and choroid. (E) En face maximum decorrelation projection angiogram after removing the choroid (pixels below the retinal pigment epithelium). (F) Fly-through movie (Media 1), in which flow (color scale representing decorrelation) was merged with structure (gray scale representing reflectance intensity), showed how the disc, retina, and choroid are perfused in a 3D volumetric fashion. A fixed pattern artifact originated from the swept laser source and resulted in a horizontal lines across the image [31].

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In vivo 3D volumetric [3.0 (x) × 3.0 (y) × 2.9 (z) mm] OCT of the macula processed with the SSADA algorithm. The images in the bottom panels have been cropped from 2.9 mm to 1.5 mm axially. (A) En face maximum decorrelation projection angiogram of the retinal circulation. (B) En face maximum decorrelation projection angiogram of the choroidal circulation. Black bar, 500 µm. (C) Horizontal OCT cross section through the foveal center (upper dashed line in A) with merged flow (decorrelation represented in color scale) and structure (reflectance intensity represented in gray scale) information. (D) Merged horizontal cross section of the inferior macula (lower dashed line in A).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation angiography using three different algorithms: full-spectrum (A, D), pixel-averaging (B. E) and split-spectrum (C, F). The macula was scanned in a 3x3 mm area. En face maximum decorrelation projections of retinal layers (A-C) showed the macular vascular network around the central foveal avascular zone (yellow circles) of 600-µm diameter. The cross-sectional angiograms (D-F) scanned across a horizontal line in the superior perifoveal region (upper dashed line of A). White bar, 500 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) Full-spectrum, (B) pixel-averaging, and (C) split-spectrum amplitude decorrelation angiography algorithms were applied to map the retinal circulation in a normal macula. The en face maximum projection decorrelation images (Fig. 6(A-C)) were binarized (Column 1), skeletonized (Column 2), and then filtered to remove unconnected flow pixels (Column 3). The ratio of the number connected flow pixels to the total number of flow pixels on the skeleton map is the vascular connectivity. The algorithms were also compared in terms of the decorrelation signal-to-noise ratio, where the noise region was inside the foveal avascular zone (Column 4 yellow circles), and the signal region was the parafoveal annulus (Column 4 between two red circles). R1 = 0.3 mm, R2 = 0.65 mm, and R3 = 1 mm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Vascular Connectivity and Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Three Angiography Algorithms

Equations (7)

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I( x,k )= R(k)A(x,k, z)cos(2kz)dz
G(n)=exp[ (nm) 2 2 σ 2 ]
I ˜ ( x,z )=FFT{ I'( x,k ) }=A( x,z )exp[iφ(x,z)]
D ¯ ( x,z )=1 1 N1 n=1 N1   A n ( x,z ) A n+1 ( x,z ) [ 1 2 A n ( x,z ) 2 + 1 2 A n+1 ( x,z ) 2 ]       ( N=8 )  
 D ¯ ( x,z )=1 1 N1   1 PQ n=1 N1 p=1 P q=1 Q   A n ( x+p,z+q ) A n+1 ( x+p,z+q ) [ 1 2 A n ( x+p,z+q ) 2 + 1 2 A n+1 ( x+p,z+q ) 2 ] ( P=1,Q=4,N=8 )
D ¯ ( x,z )=1 1 N1   1 M n=1 N1 m=1 M   A n ( x,z ) A n+1 ( x,z ) [ 1 2 A n ( x,z ) 2 + 1 2 A n+1 ( x,z ) 2 ]      (M=4,N=8)
DSNR= D ¯ Parafovea D ¯ FAZ σ FAZ 2

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