Abstract

We report the design, fabrication, and measurement of a broadband metamaterial absorber, which consists of lossy frequency selective surface (FSS) and a metallic ground plane separated by a dielectric layer. The compact single unit cell of the FSS contains crisscross and fractal square patch which couple with each other. Both qualitative analysis by equivalent circuit and accurate numeric calculation show that the coupling between the crisscross and the fractal square patch can enhance the bandwidth with the reflectivity below −10dB in the frequency range of 2-18GHz by producing a third absorption null. In the end, the designed absorber was realized by experiment.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. X. P. Shen, T. J. Cui, J. M. Zhao, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and H. Li, “Polarization-independent wide-angle triple-band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9401–9407 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. L. Chern and W. T. Hong, “Nearly perfect absorption in intrinsically low-loss grating structures,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8962–8972 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. L. Huang and H. Chen, “Multi-band and polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 113, 103–110 (2011).
  6. B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Ultra-thin absorbers by using high impedance surfaces with resistive frequency selective surfaces,” International Symposium Antennas and Propagation Society 2007.
  8. H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Z. Piao, Y. F. Li, and G. Z. Lu, “Broadband electromagnetic absorber designs using genetic algorithm,” Automation Congress 2008.
  12. C. Suomin, D. S. Weile, and J. L. Volakis, “Novel planar absorber designs using genetic algorithms,” International Symposium Antennas and Propagation Society 2009.
  13. M. E. A. Safwat, “High impedance wire composite right/left-handed transmission lines,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52(6), 1390–1393 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Huang and H. Chen, “Multi-band and polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 113, 103–110 (2011).

R. L. Chern and W. T. Hong, “Nearly perfect absorption in intrinsically low-loss grating structures,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8962–8972 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. P. Shen, T. J. Cui, J. M. Zhao, H. F. Ma, W. X. Jiang, and H. Li, “Polarization-independent wide-angle triple-band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9401–9407 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. E. A. Safwat, “High impedance wire composite right/left-handed transmission lines,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52(6), 1390–1393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, Y.

M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baena, J. D.

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

B. L. Huang and H. Chen, “Multi-band and polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 113, 103–110 (2011).

Cheng, H. F.

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Z. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chern, R. L.

Chu, Z. Y.

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cos, M. E.

M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Costa, F.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

Hong, W. T.

Huang, B. L.

B. L. Huang and H. Chen, “Multi-band and polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 113, 103–110 (2011).

Jiang, W. X.

Kazantsev, Y. N.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazantseva, N. E.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Las-Heras, F.

M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Liu, H. T.

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lopatin, A. V.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. F.

Ma, J. F.

J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mal’tsev, V. P.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manara, G.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marqués, R.

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martel, J.

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Medina, F.

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mittra, R.

J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monorchio, A.

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munk, B. A.

B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munk, P.

B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pryor, J.

B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Safwat, M. E. A.

M. E. A. Safwat, “High impedance wire composite right/left-handed transmission lines,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52(6), 1390–1393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saha, P.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shatrov, A. D.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. P.

Smith, D. R.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vilcakova, J.

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, N.

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. L.

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, J.

J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Y.

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J. M.

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

Y. Z. Cheng, H. L. Yang, Z. Z. Cheng, and N. Wu, “Perfect metamaterial absorber based on a split-ring-cross resonator,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 102(1), 99–103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (3)

B. A. Munk, P. Munk, and J. Pryor, “On designing jaumann and circuit analog absorber (CA absorber) for oblique angel of incidence,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 55(1), 186–193 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Analysis and design of ultra-thin electromagnetic absorbers comprising resistively loaded high impedance surfaces,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(5), 1551–1558 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. N. Kazantsev, A. V. Lopatin, N. E. Kazantseva, A. D. Shatrov, V. P. Mal’tsev, J. Vilcakova, and P. Saha, “Broadening of operating frequency band of magnetic-type radio absorbers by FSS incorporation,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 58(4), 1227–1235 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Des. (1)

H. T. Liu, H. F. Cheng, Z. Y. Chu, and D. Y. Zhang, “Absorbing properties of frequency selective surface absorbers with cross-shaped resistive patches,” Mater. Des. 28(7), 2166–2171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. E. A. Safwat, “High impedance wire composite right/left-handed transmission lines,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 52(6), 1390–1393 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yeo, J. F. Ma, and R. Mittra, “Ga-based design of artificial magnetic Fround planes(AMGS) utilizing frequency selective surface for bandwidth enhancement of microstrip antennas,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 44(1), 6–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. D. Baena, R. Marqués, F. Medina, and J. Martel, “Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators,” Phys. Rev. B 69(1), 014402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Electromagn. Res. (2)

M. E. Cos, Y. Alvarez, and F. Las-Heras, “A novel approach for RCS reduction using a combination of artificial magnetic conductors,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 107, 147–159 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Huang and H. Chen, “Multi-band and polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 113, 103–110 (2011).

Other (3)

F. Costa, A. Monorchio, and G. Manara, “Ultra-thin absorbers by using high impedance surfaces with resistive frequency selective surfaces,” International Symposium Antennas and Propagation Society 2007.

D. Z. Piao, Y. F. Li, and G. Z. Lu, “Broadband electromagnetic absorber designs using genetic algorithm,” Automation Congress 2008.

C. Suomin, D. S. Weile, and J. L. Volakis, “Novel planar absorber designs using genetic algorithms,” International Symposium Antennas and Propagation Society 2009.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional sketch (a) and equivalent circuit (b) of the conventional FSS absorber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

optimized reflectivity of the conventional lossy FSS absorber with different FSS pattern. (a) The thickness of the absorber is 3mm. (b) the thickness of the absorber is 4mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic structure of the designed FSS (a) and its corresponding circuit model (b)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Impedance of a 4 mm grounded substrate and impedance of the designed FSS with periodicity. The resonances of the FSS and the absorber are highlighted.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Distribution of the surface currents on the FSS at ω0 (a) and ω1 (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optimized reflectivity of the designed absorber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fabricated sample of the 3mm and 4mm broadband lossy FSS absorber

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the reflectivity of the broadband absorber between experimental (black curve) and simulated (red curve) results, (a) the thickness of the absorber is 3mm, (b) the thickness of the absorber is 4mm

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Optimized Parameters of the Designed 3mm and 4mm Broadband Absorber

Equations (3)

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goalfunction=(nBW×100+ R a )/100
Z f = R f + 1 jω C 1 +jω L 1 + jω L 2 1 ω 2 L 2 C 2
Z d =j Z 0 1 ε r tan( 2πf c ε r d)

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