Abstract

In this paper we show new ways to improve the performance of ground-based coronagraphy. We introduce adaptive coronagraphic masks whose profile is a binary version of the instantaneous atmospherically degraded star image. We also propose the hyper-Gaussian profile masks obtained by averaging adaptive masks. In addition, adaptive Lyot stops and hyper-Gaussian Lyot stops are analyzed. Computer simulations show that all these masks outperform the circular hard-edged mask and that a proper mask and stop combination significantly reduces the angular separation at which a faint companion can be detected.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, “Gain estimate for exoplanet detection with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145, 445–449 (2000).
  8. E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Bourget, R. Vieira Martins, F. Colas, P. Assus, and A. Irbah, “Adaptive mask coronagraph,” in Direct Imaging of Exoplanets, Science and Techniques, C. Aime and F. Vakili eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 461–465.
  12. See for example: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/dlp5500.pdf .
  13. M. Lacolle, R. Belikov, H. Sagberg, O. Solgaard, and A. S. Sudbø, “Algorithms for the synthesis of complex-value spectral filters with an array of micromechanical mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12590–12612 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, 1998).
  18. S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, “Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks,” Astrophys. J. 628(1), 474–477 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. J. Kuchner and D. N. Spergel, “Notch filter masks: Practical image masks for planet-finding coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594(1), 617–626 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Martinez, C. Dorrer, and M. Kasper, “Band-limited coronagraphs using halftone dot process: design guidelines, manufacturing and laboratory results,” Astrophys. J. 705(2), 1637–1645 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Martinez, C. Dorrer, and M. Kasper, “Band-limited coronagraphs using halftone dot process: design guidelines, manufacturing and laboratory results,” Astrophys. J. 705(2), 1637–1645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Lacolle, R. Belikov, H. Sagberg, O. Solgaard, and A. S. Sudbø, “Algorithms for the synthesis of complex-value spectral filters with an array of micromechanical mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12590–12612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, “Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks,” Astrophys. J. 628(1), 474–477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

M. J. Kuchner and D. N. Spergel, “Notch filter masks: Practical image masks for planet-finding coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594(1), 617–626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, “Gain estimate for exoplanet detection with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145, 445–449 (2000).

M. P. Cagigal and V. F. Canales, “Generalized Fried parameter after adaptive optics partial wavefront compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(5), 903–910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aime, C.

A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bejar, V. J. S.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belikov, R.

Boccaletti, A.

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burruss, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cagigal, M. P.

J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Cagigal and V. F. Canales, “Generalized Fried parameter after adaptive optics partial wavefront compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(5), 903–910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, “Gain estimate for exoplanet detection with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145, 445–449 (2000).

Canales, V. F.

J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, “Gain estimate for exoplanet detection with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145, 445–449 (2000).

M. P. Cagigal and V. F. Canales, “Generalized Fried parameter after adaptive optics partial wavefront compensation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(5), 903–910 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cichocki, T.

M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clénet, Y.

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, B.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crepp, J. R.

J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-Sanchez, A.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

P. Martinez, C. Dorrer, and M. Kasper, “Band-limited coronagraphs using halftone dot process: design guidelines, manufacturing and laboratory results,” Astrophys. J. 705(2), 1637–1645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Femenia, B.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A.

A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Galicher, R.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gappinger, R.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ge, J.

J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. J.

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, “Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks,” Astrophys. J. 628(1), 474–477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haguenauer, P.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrandt, S. R.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, M.

P. Martinez, C. Dorrer, and M. Kasper, “Band-limited coronagraphs using halftone dot process: design guidelines, manufacturing and laboratory results,” Astrophys. J. 705(2), 1637–1645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kober, V.

M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, M.

M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuchner, M. J.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and D. N. Spergel, “Notch filter masks: Practical image masks for planet-finding coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594(1), 617–626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Labadie, L.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lacolle, M.

Lopez, R.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

Martinache, F.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, P.

P. Martinez, C. Dorrer, and M. Kasper, “Band-limited coronagraphs using halftone dot process: design guidelines, manufacturing and laboratory results,” Astrophys. J. 705(2), 1637–1645 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Corral, M.

M. Kowalczyk, T. Cichocki, M. Martinez-Corral, and V. Kober, “Binarization of continuous-tone pupil filters: a comparison of several digital halftoning procedures,” Pure Appl. Opt. 4(5), 553–570 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mennesson, B.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oscoz, A.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oti, J. E.

J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pérez Prieto, J. A.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Garrido, A.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, J.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pluzhnik, E. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L. A.

Rebolo, R.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Riaud, D.

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roddier, N.

N. Roddier, “Atmospheric wavefront simulation using Zernike polynomials,” Opt. Eng. 29(10), 1174–1180 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rodríguez, L. F.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sagberg, H.

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaklan, S. B.

S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, “Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks,” Astrophys. J. 628(1), 474–477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solgaard, O.

Soummer, R.

A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spergel, D. N.

M. J. Kuchner and D. N. Spergel, “Notch filter masks: Practical image masks for planet-finding coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594(1), 617–626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sudbø, A. S.

Traub, W. A.

M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vanden Heuvel, A. D.

J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villó, L.

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
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Wallace, K.

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
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Woodruff, R. A.

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
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Astron. Astrophys. (2)

V. F. Canales and M. P. Cagigal, “Gain estimate for exoplanet detection with adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. 145, 445–449 (2000).

L. Labadie, R. Rebolo, L. Villó, J. A. Pérez Prieto, A. Pérez-Garrido, S. R. Hildebrandt, B. Femenia, A. Díaz-Sanchez, V. J. S. Bejar, A. Oscoz, R. Lopez, J. Piqueras, and L. F. Rodríguez, “High-contrast optical imaging of companions: the case of the brown dwarf binary HD 130948 BC,” Astron. Astrophys. 526, A144 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (8)

J. R. Crepp, A. D. Vanden Heuvel, and J. Ge, “Comparative Lyot coronagraphy with extreme adaptive optics systems,” Astrophys. J. 661(2), 1323–1331 (2007).
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S. B. Shaklan and J. J. Green, “Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks,” Astrophys. J. 628(1), 474–477 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kuchner and D. N. Spergel, “Notch filter masks: Practical image masks for planet-finding coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. 594(1), 617–626 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Serabyn, K. Wallace, M. Troy, B. Mennesson, P. Haguenauer, R. Gappinger, and R. Burruss, “Extreme adaptive optics imaging with a clear and well-corrected off-axis telescope subaperture,” Astrophys. J. 658(2), 1386–1391 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, R. Galicher, F. Martinache, S. T. Ridgway, and R. A. Woodruff, “Exoplanet imaging with a phase-induced amplitude apodization coronagraph. I. Principle,” Astrophys. J. 622(1), 744–758 (2005).
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M. J. Kuchner and W. A. Traub, “A coronagraph with a band-limited mask for finding terrestrial planets,” Astrophys. J. 570(2), 900–908 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Oti, V. F. Canales, and M. P. Cagigal, “Pure amplitude masks for exoplanet detection with the Optical Differentiation Coronagraph,” Astrophys. J. 662(1), 738–743 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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O. Guyon, E. A. Pluzhnik, M. J. Kuchner, B. Collins, and S. T. Ridgway, “Theoretical limits on extrasolar planets detection with coronagraphs,” Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 167(1), 81–99 (2006).
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A. Ferrari, R. Soummer, and C. Aime, “An introduction to stellar coronagraphy,” C. R. Phys. 8(3-4), 277–287 (2007).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

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Opt. Express (1)

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D. Rouan, D. Riaud, A. Boccaletti, Y. Clénet, and A. Labeyrie, “The four-quadrant phase-mask coronagraph,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112(777), 1479–1486 (2000).
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Other (3)

J. W. Hardy, Adaptive Optics for Astronomical Telescopes (Oxford University Press, 1998).

P. Bourget, R. Vieira Martins, F. Colas, P. Assus, and A. Irbah, “Adaptive mask coronagraph,” in Direct Imaging of Exoplanets, Science and Techniques, C. Aime and F. Vakili eds. (Cambridge University Press, 2006), pp. 461–465.

See for example: http://www.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/dlp5500.pdf .

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Adaptive coronagraph. EP: Entrance pupil, L1: Telescope primary mirror, BS: Beam Splitter, CCD: Camera, AM: Reflecting adaptive mask, L2 and L3: 4-f system, LS: Lyot stop, and SC: Scientific camera. (b) Transversal cut (λ/D in units) of the star PSF (blue line) and the threshold used to determine the adaptive mask shape (green line). The companion PSF (red line) is below the threshold. (c) Detail of a binary adaptive mask obtained from the star PSF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Values of the angular separation ρ (λ/D units) from the star to the nearest point in which SNRCS>5 as a function of D/r0. (b) Percentage value Δρ following Eq. (2). Blue, green and red lines are for HEM, AM and HGM respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Final average image for HEM (left), AM (centre) and HGM (right) for D/r0 = 3. The companion positions are 22, 23 and 24 λ/D, respectively, so that in all cases the condition SNRCS>5 is fulfilled.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aberrated Airy pattern (black) and averaged contrast curves for the HEM (blue), HGM (red), and BLM (green) masks for a fixed circular Lyot stop size with 75% throughput. Abscissa axis is the radial coordinate in λ/D units.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 IWA Values* of HEM, HGM and BLM for D/r0 = 1, 3, 5, and 7

Tables Icon

Table 2 Combinations of Masks and Lyot Stops; Star-Companion Intensity Ratio: 106*

Tables Icon

Table 3 Combinations of Masks and Lyot Stops; Star-Companion Intensity Ratio: 107*

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BE=97.5+0.25 (D/ r 0 ) 5/6 .
Δρ= ρ HE ρ AM ρ HE 100.
HG(r)=1exp[ r 4 σ 4 ],
s= 2.40 ( D/ r 0 ) + 8.15 .
C(r)= I(r) I s (0) | M(r) | 2 ,
BLM(r)=1sin c 2 (γr),

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