Abstract

A novel approach for an all-fiber mono-laser source for CARS microscopy is presented. An Yb-fiber laser generates 100 ps pulses, which later undergo narrowband in-fiber frequency conversion based on degenerate four-wave-mixing. The frequency conversion is optimized to access frequency shifts between 900 and 3200cm−1, relevant for vibrational imaging. Inherently synchronized pump and Stokes pulses are available at one fiber end, readily overlapped in space and time. The source is applied to CARS spectroscopy and microscopy experiments in the CH-stretching region around 3000cm−1. Due to its simplicity and maintenance-free operation, the laser scheme holds great potential for bio-medical applications outside laser laboratories.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. R. Andresen, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, and S. R. Keiding, “Fiber laser-based light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4848–4856 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. Ortaς, M. Plötner, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental and numerical study of pulse dynamics in positive net-cavity dispersion modelocked Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 15595–15602 (2007).
  11. W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Steinmetz, D. Nodop, A. Martin, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Reduction of timing jitter in passively Q-switched microchip lasers using self-injection seeding,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2885–2887 (2010).
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2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, E. R.

Balu, M.

Bateman, S. A.

Biancalana, F.

Birks, T.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, Z.

Coen, S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

Dudley, J. M.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dupriez, P.

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

Fu, L.

Gambetta, A.

Hanke, T.

Holtom, G. R.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jauregui, C.

Joly, N.

Keiding, S. R.

Kieu, K.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

Krauss, G.

Kumar, V.

Lavoute, L.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Limpert, J.

Liu, G.

Manzoni, C.

Marangoni, M.

Martin, A.

Moffatt, D. J.

Mosley, P. J.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, C. K.

Nodop, D.

Orta?, B.

Pegoraro, A. F.

Pezacki, J. P.

Plötner, M.

Potma, E. O.

Ramponi, R.

Ridsdale, A.

Russell, P.

Saar, B. G.

Schimpf, D.

Schreiber, T.

Sell, A.

Selm, R.

Steinmetz, A.

Stolow, A.

Thøgersen, J.

Thomas, B. K.

Tromberg, B. J.

Tünnermann, A.

Wadsworth, W.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winterhalder, M.

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) (1)

C. L. Evans and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering microscopy: chemical imaging for biology and medicine,” Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 1(1), 883–909 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

W. Wadsworth, N. Joly, J. Knight, T. Birks, F. Biancalana, and P. Russell, “Supercontinuum and four-wave mixing with Q-switched pulses in endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fibres,” Opt. Express 12(2), 299–309 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Andresen, C. K. Nielsen, J. Thøgersen, and S. R. Keiding, “Fiber laser-based light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4848–4856 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ortaς, M. Plötner, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental and numerical study of pulse dynamics in positive net-cavity dispersion modelocked Yb-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 15, 15595–15602 (2007).

M. Balu, G. Liu, Z. Chen, B. J. Tromberg, and E. O. Potma, “Fiber delivered probe for efficient CARS imaging of tissues,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2380–2388 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lavoute, J. C. Knight, P. Dupriez, and W. J. Wadsworth, “High power red and near-IR generation using four wave mixing in all integrated fibre laser systems,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16193–16205 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Pegoraro, A. Ridsdale, D. J. Moffatt, J. P. Pezacki, B. K. Thomas, L. Fu, L. Dong, M. E. Fermann, and A. Stolow, “All-fiber CARS microscopy of live cells,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20700–20706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Mosley, S. A. Bateman, L. Lavoute, and W. J. Wadsworth, “Low-noise, high-brightness, tunable source of picosecond pulsed light in the near-infrared and visible,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25337–25345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-Dimensional Vibrational Imaging by Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of the environmentally stable, alignment-free fiber laser system employed to drive the four-wave-mixing process. SC-single clad fiber, DC-double clad fiber, FBG-fiber Bragg grating.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output characteristics of the ps pump laser system. (a) Temporal pulse shape measured with a fast photo diode (18.5ps) and a sampling oscilloscope (70GHz). (b) Optical spectrum (black) (resolution 0.02nm); additionally the spectrum of the fs output is shown (gray).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) DFWM frequency shift with respect to pump calculated for different PCF designs. The legend contains the geometrical parameters Λ (hole-to-hole distance) and d (hole diameter). (b) Microscope image of PCF#5. The legend provides the geometrical parameters of the different fibers. All fibers are standard one-hole-missing designs with hexagonal hole arrangement. Note, that the relative dimensions are the same for PCF#1-5, hence, suppressing the scale bar, the microscope image would be identical for PCF#1-5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal and idler wavelengths that fulfill both energy and momentum conservation as a function of the pump wavelength, calculated for a peak power of 2 kW for PCF#2. The green curve shows the corresponding frequency shift with respect to the pump that is obtained for different pump wavelengths. The inset on the left shows the simulated mode profile at 1030nm, the upper inset illustrates the use of the different frequencies for CARS.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectra of the clean signal and idler generation via DFWM in PCF#2, pumped with 0.37 W at 1033 nm. (b) DFWM signal spectra for increasing pump power, showing the evolution of maximum spectral power density and spectral width of the signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Variation of the frequency shift by tuning the pump laser. (b) Temporal pulse shapes measured with a fast photo diode (18.5ps) and a sampling oscilloscope (70GHz). The FWM pump (gray), the FWM signal which is used as CARS pump (orange), and the residual, partially depleted FWM pump which is used as CARS Stokes (red) are shown. The area is normalized to the pulse energy to estimate the peak power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simple CARS setup. The PCF output is simply collimated and focused into the sample. No additional delay line is required as the pulses are already overlapped. LP 650 - long pass 650nm, SP 770 - short pass 770nm, MMF - multi-mode fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) CARS signal spectra and (b) CARS signal power, obtained by tuning the pump-Stokes frequency shift across the resonance of toluene.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

CARS microscope images of glass spheres in toluene, 970x970 pixels, no average. Detuning from resonance demonstrates high signal to noise ratios.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Illustration showing that long pulses (case B) yield the same CARS signal power as shorter ones (case A), as long as the repetition rate is lowered accordingly, keeping both average and peak power constant.

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