Abstract

Heteroepitaxial strain in ferroelectric thin films is known to have a significant impact on both their low and high frequency dielectric properties. In this paper, we use ex-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to study the strain evolution with film thickness, and strain relaxation in ferroelectric Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 epitaxial films grown on single crystal substrates. For films grown on MgO substrates, a critical thickness for strain relaxation is observed. In addition, studies of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films grown on different single crystal substrates reveal that the strain relaxation rate can be inferred from changes in the optical properties. Using this information, we show that the optical constants of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 can be readily tuned via strain engineering.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Shin, H. J. Chang, R. W. Boyd, M. R. Choi, and W. Jo, “Large nonlinear optical response of polycrystalline Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 ferroelectric thin films on quartz substrates,” Opt. Lett. 32, 2453–2455 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., “Guide to using WVASE32: software for spectroscopic ellipsometry data acquisition and analysis,” Lincoln, NE, USA (1995).
  19. T. Schimizu, “The effect of strain on the permittivity of SrTiO3 from first-principles study,” Solid State Commun. 102, 523–527 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

T. Schimizu, “The effect of strain on the permittivity of SrTiO3 from first-principles study,” Solid State Commun. 102, 523–527 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, C. H.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alford, N. M.

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alldredge, L. M. B.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alpay, S. P.

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Auciello, O.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bársony, I.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Chang, H. J.

Chang, W.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. Q.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-J.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, M. R.

Choudhury, S.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, J.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craigo, B.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damjanovic, D.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dittmann, R.

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eng, L.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fox, G.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fried, M.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gevorgian, S.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gyulai, J.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haeni, J. H.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, J. P.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawley, M. E.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J. Q.

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, J.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, Z. E.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoshina, T.

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Irene, E. A.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Irvin, P.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, W.

Kakemoto, H.

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khánh, N.Q.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.-K.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-E.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kingon, A.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kirchoefer, S. W.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohlstedt, H.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, A.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lancaster, M. J.

M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leach, J.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-J.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levy, J.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, W. S.

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lohner, T.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T. P.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, X.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y.

P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moeckly, B. H.

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. E.

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, A. H.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muraishi, T.

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pan, X.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, X. Q.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, N. Y.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, L. S.-J.

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pertsev, N. A.

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrik, P.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, P. K.

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pond, J. M.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Porch, A.

M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Powell, J.

M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reiche, P.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiner, J. W.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowe, E.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryssel, H.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarma, K.

P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schimizu, T.

T. Schimizu, “The effect of strain on the permittivity of SrTiO3 from first-principles study,” Solid State Commun. 102, 523–527 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlom, D. G.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, C.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, J. A.

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Setter, N.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.

Stephenson, G. B.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stolitchnov, I.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Streiffer, S.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Streiffer, S. K.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taganstev, A. K.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tagantsev, A. K.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, K.

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. V.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsurumi, T.

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Uecker, R.

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vasco, E.

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walker, F. J.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. H.

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xi, X. X.

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, B.

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zembilgotov, A. G.

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zolnai, Z.

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

J. Hoffman, X. Pan, J. W. Reiner, F. J. Walker, J. P. Han, C. H. Ahn, and T. P. Ma, “Ferroelectric field effect transistors for memory applications,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2957–2961 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. S.-J. Peng, X. X. Xi, B. H. Moeckly, and S. P. Alpay, “Strain relaxation during in situ growth of SrTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4592 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Xiao, V. Avrutin, H. Liu, E. Rowe, J. Leach, X. Gu, Ü. Özgür, H. Morkoç, W. Chang, L. M. B. Alldredge, S. W. Kirchoefer, and J. M. Pond, “Effect of large strain on dielectric and ferroelectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 012907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. E. Moon, E.-K. Kim, S.-J. Lee, J.-J. Choi, and H.-E. Kim, “Electro-optic characteristics of (001)-oriented Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Ferroelectr.

P. K. Petrov, K. Sarma, and N. M. Alford, “Evaluation of residual stress in thin ferroelectric films using grazing incident X-ray diffraction,” Integr. Ferroelectr. 63, 183–189 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Setter, D. Damjanovic, L. Eng, G. Fox, S. Gevorgian, S. Hong, A. Kingon, H. Kohlstedt, N. Y. Park, G. B. Stephenson, I. Stolitchnov, A. K. Taganstev, D. V. Taylor, T. Yamada, and S. Streiffer, “Ferroelectric thin films: Review of materials, properties, and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 100, 051606 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

P. Petrik, N.Q. Khánh, Z. E. Horváth, Z. Zolnai, I. Bársony, T. Lohner, M. Fried, J. Gyulai, C. Schmidt, C. Schneider, and H. Ryssel, “Characterisation of BaxSr1−xTiO3 films using spectroscopic ellipsometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and X-ray diffraction,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 303, 179–184 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

Y. Gao, A. H. Mueller, E. A. Irene, O. Auciello, A. Krauss, and J. A. Schultz, “In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 1880 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Z. Hu, G. Wang, Z. Huang, X. Meng, F. Shi, and J. Chu, “Investigations of the optical properties of Ba0.9Sr0.1TiO3 ferroelectric thin films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, 1400–1404 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Charact.

Y. Q. Wang, W. S. Liang, P. K. Petrov, and N. M. Alford, “Dissociation of misfit and threading dislocations in Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 epitaxial films,” Mater. Charact. 62, 294–297 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

K. Takeda, T. Muraishi, T. Hoshina, H. Kakemoto, and T. Tsurumi, “Birefringence and electro-optic effect in epitaxial BST thin films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 161, 61 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

J. H. Haeni, P. Irvin, W. Chang, R. Uecker, P. Reiche, Y. L. Li, S. Choudhury, W. Tian, M. E. Hawley, B. Craigo, A. K. Tagantsev, X. Q. Pan, S. K. Streiffer, L. Q. Chen, S. W. Kirchoefer, J. Levy, and D. G. Schlom, “Room-temperature ferroelectricity in strained SrTiO3,” Nature 430, 758–761 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

P. Li, Y. Liu, and Y. Meng, “Electrically controlled multifrequency ferroelectric cloak,” Opt. Express 18, 12647–12652 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. Q. He, E. Vasco, R. Dittmann, and R. H. Wang, “Growth dynamics and strain relaxation mechanisms in BaTiO3 pulsed laser deposited on SrRuO3/SrTiO3,” Phys. Rev. B 73, 125413 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

N. A. Pertsev, A. G. Zembilgotov, and A. K. Tagantsev, “Effect of mechanical boundary conditions on phase diagrams of epitaxial ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1988–1991 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

T. Schimizu, “The effect of strain on the permittivity of SrTiO3 from first-principles study,” Solid State Commun. 102, 523–527 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Supercond. Sci. Technol.

M. J. Lancaster, J. Powell, and A. Porch, “Thin-film ferroelectric microwave devices,” Supercond. Sci. Technol. 11, 1323–1334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Woollam Co., Inc., “Guide to using WVASE32: software for spectroscopic ellipsometry data acquisition and analysis,” Lincoln, NE, USA (1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

AFM surface morphology images of 37 nm (a) and 220 nm (b) BSTO films. The scale bar in both images corresponds to 500 nm. Note the difference in color scales. They are 0–20 nm in (a) and 0–60 nm in (b), respectively, chosen to show the best contrast.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD patterns of BSTO films of different thickness (a) and the calculated c-parameter as a function of film thickness (b). The inset in (a) shows an enlarged view of (002) peaks for 68 nm and 220 nm BSTO films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured (dashed lines) and fit (solid lines) ellipsometry data Ψ (and Δ in the insets) for BSTO films of different thicknesses. The inset in (b) shows the optical model used to do the fittings. The model consists of a strained layer implemented with a Cauchy dispersion profile and a surface layer characterized by a constant refractive index.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive indices obtained by simultaneously fitting ellipsometry data for three thin films of BSTO on MgO (a) and for the strained layer (thickness t1) and the relaxed layer (thickness t2) obtained by fitting data for thicker BSTO films (b). The two different optical models used are shown in the insets. The tables summarize the thickness of each layer extracted from the models.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the strained layer thickness as a function of the total film thickness obtained from ellipsometry.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive indices for BSTO films grown on LAO, LSAT and STO single crystal substrates. The percentage values quoted are calculated by the expression (αfilmαsub)/αsub. αfilm and αsub are the in-plane lattice constants of the bulk BSTO and the different substrates, respectively. The refractive index is found to decrease for increasing in-plane compressive strain.

Metrics