Abstract

Nanograting inscription with a tightly focused femtosecond beam on the surface of fused silica was studied. The width and spacing of grooves are shown to decrease with the increase of the number of overlapped shots in both stationary and scanning cases. We propose a model to explain this behavior, based on both the so-called nanoplasmonic model and the incubation effect.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14, 10117–10124 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2713–2715 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Liang, R. Vallée, D. Gingras, and S. L. Chin, “Role of ablation and incubation processes on surface nanograting formation,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1244–1250 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. A. Plonus, Applied Electro-Magnetics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).
  15. A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, D. Gingras, and S. L. Chin, “Role of ablation and incubation processes on surface nanograting formation,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1244–1250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14, 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Ashkenasi, D.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bovatsek, J.

Bricchi, E.

Buividas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Chowdhury, I. H.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Datsyuk, V.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gingras, D.

F. Liang, R. Vallée, D. Gingras, and S. L. Chin, “Role of ablation and incubation processes on surface nanograting formation,” Opt. Mater. Express 1, 1244–1250 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juodkazis, S.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express 14, 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudrius, T.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, F.

Lorenz, M.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Plonus, M. A.

M. A. Plonus, Applied Electro-Magnetics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reif, J.

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosa, L.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Šlekys, G.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Šliupas, R.

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Q.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Sun, F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Nanograting formation on the surface of silica glass by scanning focused femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2713–2715 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tempel, A.

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tien, A.

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Vogel, N.

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolfframm, D.

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, A. Q.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.-F.

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident Laser,” ACS Nano 3, 4062–4070 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

M. Henyk, N. Vogel, D. Wolfframm, A. Tempel, and J. Reif, “Femtosecond laser ablation from dielectric materials: comparison to arc discharge erosion” Appl. Phys. A 69, S355–S358 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Rosenfeld, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and D. Ashkenasi, “Ultrashort-laser-pulse damage threshold of transparent materials and the role of incubation,” Appl. Phys. A 69, S373–S376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

D. Ashkenasi, M. Lorenz, R. Stoian, and A. Rosenfeld, “Surface damage threshold and structuring of dielectrics using femtosecond laser pulses: the role of incubation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 150, 101–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

R. Buividas, L. Rosa, R. Šliupas, T. Kudrius, G. Šlekys, V. Datsyuk, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanism of fine ripple formation on surfaces of (semi)transparent materials via a half-wavelength cavity feedback,” Nanotechnology 22, 055304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Q. Wu, I. H. Chowdhury, and X.-F. Xu, “Femtosecond laser absorption in fused silica: numerical and experimental investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 085128 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, “Short-pulse laser damage in transparent materials as a function of pulse duration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883–3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultra-short light pulses” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. A. Plonus, Applied Electro-Magnetics (McGraw-Hill, 1978).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The shot-to-shot evolution of nanogrooves at 90 nJ/pulse. The dashed lines indicate the location for cross-section roughly.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nanograting formation as a function of d at 100 nJ/pulse. K: laser propagation direction; S: scan direction; E: laser polarization direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Local intensity distribution of the first shot (normalized with respect to the incident peak intensity). (b) and (c) Local intensity distribution along y-axis and x-axis. (Simulated with plasma density: 2.5 × 1021/cm3; single shot ablation threshold: 3.95J/cm2; pulse energy: 90 nJ/pulse, pulse width: 80 fs; focal spot diameter: 2.4 μm.)

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Local intensity distribution as a function of the number of laser shots (top) and the corresponding ideal patterns in the (x,y) plane (bottom). The red line is the normalized incident laser intensity. These plots are obtained with the following parameters: plasma density: 2.5 × 1021/cm3 for all nanogrooves; ablation threshold for (a) 3.95 J/cm2; (b) 3.46 J/cm2; (c) 3.05 J/cm2; (d) 2.95 J/cm2; pulse energy: 90 nJ/pulse, pulse width: 80 fs; focal spot diameter: 2.4 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic drawing showing the modification of local intensity for the case of laser polarization parallel to the scan direction. The self-repetition of increase of the local intensity and decrease of the ablation threshold at the leading side-maximum in (b) is the driver for ordered grating formation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of width (a) and spacing (b) of nanogrooves at 100nJ/pulse with laser polarization parallel to the scan direction. The red curve in (b) corresponds to the simulation performed with the following parameters: plasma density: 2.5 × 1021/cm3; pulse energy: 106 nJ/pulse, pulse width: 42 fs; focal spot diameter: 2.56 μm and the ablation fluence is following: Fd = 3.06 + (3.89 – 3.06)exp(−0.034(1.28/d – 1)) (see Ref. [12])

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of local intensity distribution along x-axis as a function of the number of pulses.

Equations (6)

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E e = | V e r r ^ 1 r V e θ θ ^ | = ( A 0 2 + B 0 2 ) E l ,
E i = | V i r r ^ 1 r V i θ θ ^ | = C 0 E l
I e , 0 = A 0 2 I l , I i , 0 = C 0 2 I l I local , 0 = I e , 0 + I i , 0
A n + = [ 1 + 2 ɛ 1 ɛ + 2 R n 3 ( x s n ) 3 ] , | x s n | > R n , A n = [ 1 + 2 ɛ 1 ɛ + 2 R n 3 ( x + s n ) 3 ] , | x + s n | > R n , C n + = C n = C 0 = 3 ɛ + 2 , | x ± s n | R n , n 1
I e , n = ( A n + 2 + A n 2 ) I local , n 1 I i , n = ( C n + 2 + C n 2 ) I local , n 1 I local , n = I e , n + I i , n , n 1
I e , n = A n 2 I l , | x s n | > R n , n 0

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