Abstract

Electromagnetically-induced transparency has become an important tool to control the optical properties of dense media. However, in a broad class of systems, the interplay between inhomogeneous broadening and the existence of several excited levels may lead to a vanishing transparency. Here, by identifying the underlying physical mechanisms resulting in this effect, we show that transparency can be strongly enhanced. We thereby demonstrate a 5-fold enhancement in a room-temperature vapor of alkali-metal atoms via a specific shaping of the atomic velocity distribution.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 023806 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A.I. Lvovsky, “Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2625–2627 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Cerboneschi and E. Arimondo, “Propagation and amplitude correlation of pairs of intense pulses interacting with a double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 5400–5409 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. A. Smith and I. G. Hughes, “The role of hyperfine pumping in multilevel systems exhibiting saturated absorption,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 631 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Lindvall and I. Tittonen, “Interaction-time-averaged optical pumping in alkali-metal-atom Doppler spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Lindvall and I. Tittonen, “Interaction-time-averaged optical pumping in alkali-metal-atom Doppler spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A.I. Lvovsky, “Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2625–2627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

D. A. Smith and I. G. Hughes, “The role of hyperfine pumping in multilevel systems exhibiting saturated absorption,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Cerboneschi and E. Arimondo, “Propagation and amplitude correlation of pairs of intense pulses interacting with a double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 5400–5409 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akamatsu, D.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, K.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akulshin, A. M.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andre, A.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A.I. Lvovsky, “Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2625–2627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arikawa, M.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arimondo, E.

E. Cerboneschi and E. Arimondo, “Propagation and amplitude correlation of pairs of intense pulses interacting with a double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 5400–5409 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barreiro, S.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Behrooz, C. H.

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharyya, D.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K.-J.

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bramati, A.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cerboneschi, E.

E. Cerboneschi and E. Arimondo, “Propagation and amplitude correlation of pairs of intense pulses interacting with a double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 5400–5409 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chakrabarti, S.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chanelière, T.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. S.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cviklinski, J.

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, H.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felinto, D.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Figueroa, F. Vewinger, J. Appel, and A.I. Lvovsky, “Decoherence of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2625–2627 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furusawa, A.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerasimov, L. V.

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P. N.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giacobino, E.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammerer, K.

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L. V.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, L.V.

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hossain, M. M.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, I. G.

D. A. Smith and I. G. Hughes, “The role of hyperfine pumping in multilevel systems exhibiting saturated absorption,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, S. D.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, T. A. B.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimble, H. J.

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korystov, D.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozuma, M.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kupriyanov, D. V.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmich, A.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lan, S.-Y.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurat, J.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezama, A.

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lindvall, T.

T. Lindvall and I. Tittonen, “Interaction-time-averaged optical pumping in alkali-metal-atom Doppler spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobino, M.

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lombardi, P.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lvovsky, A. I.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lvovsky, A.I.

Macguire, L. P.

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mair, A.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massou, F.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsukevich, D. N.

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mese, E.

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, O. S.

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, O.S.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nagatsuka, S.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortalo, J.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, M. G.

K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinard, M.

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ray, B.

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherman, M.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scholten, R. E.

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sheremet, A. S.

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. A.

D. A. Smith and I. G. Hughes, “The role of hyperfine pumping in multilevel systems exhibiting saturated absorption,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, I. M.

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorensen, A. S.

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, T.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, W.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tittonen, I.

T. Lindvall and I. Tittonen, “Interaction-time-averaged optical pumping in alkali-metal-atom Doppler spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Bijnen, R. M. W

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vewinger, F.

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, C. Y.

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, Y.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Phys.

D. A. Smith and I. G. Hughes, “The role of hyperfine pumping in multilevel systems exhibiting saturated absorption,” Am. J. Phys. 72, 631 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Li, L. Deng, and M. G. Payne, “Realization of a single and closed Λ-system in a room-temperature three-level coherently prepared resonant medium with narrow D1 hyperfine splittings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 221103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

M. M. Hossain, S. Mitra, S. Chakrabarti, D. Bhattacharyya, B. Ray, and P. N. Ghosh, “Study of width and height of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened five-level system with varying probe power,” Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 141–146 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B

L. P. Macguire, R. M. W van Bijnen, E. Mese, and R. E. Scholten, “Theoretical calculation of saturated absorption spectra for multi-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, 2709 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L.V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behrooz, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397, 594–598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Chanelière, D. N. Matsukevich, S. D. Jenkins, S.-Y. Lan, T. A. B. Kennedy, and A. Kuzmich, “Storage and retrieval of single photons transmitted between remote quantum memories,” Nature 438, 833–836 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Eisaman, A. Andre, F. Massou, M. Fleischhauer, A. S. Zibrov, and M. D. Lukin, “Electromagnetically induced transparency with tunable single-photon pulses,” Nature 438, 837–841 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Choi, H. Deng, J. Laurat, and H. J. Kimble, “Mapping photonic entanglement into and out of a quantum memory,” Nature 452, 67–71 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon.

A. I. Lvovsky, B. C. Sanders, and W. Tittel, “Quantum optical memory,” Nature Photon. 3, 706–714 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

A. M. Akulshin, S. Barreiro, and A. Lezama, “Electromagnetically induced absorption and transparency due to resonant two-field excitation of quasidegenerate levels in Rb vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 2996–3002 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Lindvall and I. Tittonen, “Interaction-time-averaged optical pumping in alkali-metal-atom Doppler spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 032505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Ye and A. S. Zibrov, “Width of the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 023806 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Cerboneschi and E. Arimondo, “Propagation and amplitude correlation of pairs of intense pulses interacting with a double-Λ system,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 5400–5409 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Sheremet, L. V. Gerasimov, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, O. S. Mishina, E. Giacobino, and J. Laurat, “Quantum memory for light via a stimulated off-resonant Raman process: Beyond the three-level Λ-scheme approximation,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 033838 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O.S. Mishina, M. Scherman, P. Lombardi, J. Ortalo, D. Felinto, A. S. Sheremet, A. Bramati, D. V. Kupriyanov, J. Laurat, and E. Giacobino, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in an inhomogeneously broadened Λ transition with multiple excited levels,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. Akamatsu, M. Arikawa, Y. Yokoi, K. Akiba, S. Nagatsuka, T. Tanimura, A. Furusawa, and M. Kozuma, “Storage and retrieval of a squeezed vacuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appel, E. Figueroa, D. Korystov, M. Lobino, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum memory for squeezed light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 093602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cviklinski, J. Ortalo, J. Laurat, A. Bramati, M. Pinard, and E. Giacobino, “Reversible quantum interface for tunable single-sideband modulation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 133601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, and R. L. Walsworth, “Storage of light in atomic vapor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783–786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

M. Fleischhauer, A. Imamoglu, and J. P. Marangos, “Electromagnetically induced transparency: optics in coherent media,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 77, 633–673 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Hammerer, A. S. Sorensen, and E. S. Polzik, “Quantum interface between light and atomic ensembles,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 1041–1093 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EIT features in a Λ and in a multi-level system. The calculated probe absorptions are displayed for atoms with different velocities given by the Doppler detunings ΔDoppler, as a function of the detuning Δ2ph. Panel (a) corresponds to a Λ-scheme and shows a preserved transparency. Panel (b) takes into account an additional excited state, leading to a vanishing transparency. The dotted line indicates the center of the EIT window for atoms with ΔDoppler=0. The integrated absorption is obtained for a Gaussian velocity distribution of 160 MHz half-width (thermal distribution for Cesium at 300 K). The control Rabi frequency is Ω = 2.3γ, where γ is the natural linewidth.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The transmission of a cesium vapor is probed by scanning the frequency of a weak σ-polarized probe field. The strong σ+-polarized control field is kept on resonance with the |s〉 to |e〉 transition. A repumper beam enables to efficiently prepare the atoms in the |g〉 ground state. Two σ+-polarized depumpers beams can be used to burn holes in the velocity distribution in order to exclude atoms with specific Doppler shifts from the interaction process. PBS and NPBS : polarizing and non-polarizing beam splitter, QWP: λ/4 plate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transparency enhancement by reshaping of the velocity distribution. (a) Transmission of the probe field as a function of the detuning Δ2ph. Curve (1): without depumping beams, Curve (2): one depumping beam with ΔD=40 MHz and Curve (3): two depumping beams with ΔD=40 MHz and 85 MHz. The transmission is normalized to the transmission for large detunings. The experimental powers are 6 mW for the depumpers, 4.5 mW for the repumper without depump, 5.5 mW with one depumps and 7.5 mW with two depumps (see text). (b) Theoretical predictions calculated from Ref. [21]. Ω = 2.3γ, corresponding to the experimental value, with γ = 2π × 5.2 MHz. We include the ground state decoherence due to the dephasing between control and probe lasers experimentally estimated to be γsg = 0.077γ. This value corresponds to twice the linewidth of these independent lasers. The inset gives the velocity distribution extracted from the data and used for the model.

Equations (1)

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| d | 2 Δ 0 + | d | 2 ( Δ 0 ω e e ) = | d | 2 ω e e .

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