Abstract

This paper presents the first chip-scale demonstration of an intra-chip free-space optical interconnect (FSOI) we recently proposed. This interconnect system provides point-to-point free-space optical links between any two communication nodes, and hence constructs an all-to-all intra-chip communication fabric, which can be extended for inter-chip communications as well. Unlike electrical and other waveguide-based optical interconnects, FSOI exhibits low latency, high energy efficiency, and large bandwidth density, and hence can significantly improve the performance of future many-core chips. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the proposed FSOI interconnect, and compare it to a waveguide-based optical interconnect with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). It shows that the FSOI system can achieve significantly lower loss and higher energy efficiency than the WDM system, even with optimistic assumptions for the latter. A 1×1-cm2 chip prototype is fabricated on a germanium substrate with integrated photodetectors. Commercial 850-nm GaAs vertical-cavity-surface-emitting-lasers (VCSELs) and fabricated fused silica microlenses are 3-D integrated on top of the substrate. At 1.4-cm distance, the measured optical transmission loss is 5 dB, the crosstalk is less than −20 dB, and the electrical-to-electrical bandwidth is 3.3 GHz. The latter is mainly limited by the 5-GHz VCSEL.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

2010 (1)

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

2009 (3)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

M. J. McFadden, M. Iqbal, T. Dillon, R. Nair, T. Gu, D. W. Prather, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale free-space optics interconnects for intrachip global communication: motivation, analysis, and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 45(25), 6358–6366 (2006).
[PubMed]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

2003 (1)

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

2002 (1)

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

2001 (1)

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

2000 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

1999 (1)

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

1994 (1)

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections”, Proc. IEEE 82(11), 769–779 (1994).

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Ahearn, J. S.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ahn, J.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Asghari, M.

Athale, R. A.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Baks, C. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Baukens, V.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Beausoleil, R. G.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Berman, R.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Binkert, N.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Brunfaut, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Cardenas, J.

Chandramani, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Chang, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Chang and L. A. Coldren, “Optimization of VCSEL structure for high-speed operation,” IEEE 21st Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf., ISLC 159–160 (2008).

Chen, L.

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Christensen, M. P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Chteauneuf, M.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ciftcioglu, B.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Coldren, L. A.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Y. -C. Chang and L. A. Coldren, “Optimization of VCSEL structure for high-speed operation,” IEEE 21st Int. Semiconductor Laser Conf., ISLC 159–160 (2008).

Dangel, R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Darling, Z.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Davis, A.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Debaes, C.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Dillon, T.

Doany, F. E.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Dong, P.

Ekman, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Fattal, D.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Faucher, J.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Feng, D.

Fiorentino, M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Fokken, G. J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Friedman, E.

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Friedman, E. G.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Garg, A.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Gilbert, B. K.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Gu, T.

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Haney, M. W.

M. J. McFadden, M. Iqbal, T. Dillon, R. Nair, T. Gu, D. W. Prather, and M. W. Haney, “Multiscale free-space optics interconnects for intrachip global communication: motivation, analysis, and experimental validation,” Appl. Opt. 45(25), 6358–6366 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Hanney, M.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Hegblom, E. R.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Hermanne, A.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Horst, F.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Hu, J.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

Hu, Jianyun

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Huang, M.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Iqbal, M.

Jahns, J.

J. Jahns, “Planar packaging of free-space optical interconnections”, Proc. IEEE 82(11), 769–779 (1994).

Jain, M.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Jouppi, N. P.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Kash, J. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kern, A.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Kiamilev, F.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Kirk, A. G.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Ko, J.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kuchta, D. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Kung, C. -C.

Kung, S. -Y.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Kwark, Y. H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Laprise, E.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Leonberger, F. J.

J. W. Goodman, F. J. Leonberger, S. -Y. Kung, and R. A. Athale, “Optical interconnections for VLSI systems,” Proc. IEEE 72(7), 850–866 (1984).

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Liao, S.

Libsch, F. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Lin, C. -K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Lipson, M.

Liu, P.

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Louderback, D.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Manipatruni, S.

McFadden, M. J.

McLaren, M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Meeus, W.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).

Milojkovic, P.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Moore, D.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Nair, R.

Nakagawa, S.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Nyikal, H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Nystrom, M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

O’Neill, F. T.

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

Offrein, B. J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Ottevaere, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Patel, C. S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Plant, D. V.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Poitras, C. B.

Prather, D. W.

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Razavi, K.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

Rieve, J.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Robinson, J. T.

Rosner, J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Santori, C. M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Savidis, I.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Schares, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schmidt, B.

Schow, C. L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Schreiber, R. S.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Schuster, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shan, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Sheridan, J. T.

F. T. O’Neill and J. T. Sheridan, “Photoresist reflow method of microlens production part I: background and experiments,” Optik 113(9), 391–404 (2002).

Sjolund, O.

D. Louderback, O. Sjolund, E. R. Hegblom, S. Nakagawa, J. Ko, and L. A. Coldren, “Modulation and free-space link characteristics of monolithically integrated vertical-cavity lasers and photodetectors with microlenses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 155–165 (1999).

Sobolewski, R.

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

Spillane, S. M.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Thienpont, H.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuster, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. -K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, D. W. Dolfi, and IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(5), 1032–1044 (2006).

Tuteleers, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Van Campenhout, J.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Vantrease, D.

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Venditti, M. B.

D. V. Plant, M. B. Venditti, E. Laprise, J. Faucher, K. Razavi, M. Chteauneuf, A. G. Kirk, and J. S. Ahearn, “256-channel bidirectional optical interconnect using VCSELs and photodiodes on CMOS,” IEEE J. Ligthwave Technol. 19(8), 1093–1103 (2001).

Verschaffelt, G.

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Vervaeke, M.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

Vickberg, M.

M. W. Haney, M. P. Christensen, P. Milojkovic, G. J. Fokken, M. Vickberg, B. K. Gilbert, J. Rieve, J. Ekman, P. Chandramani, F. Kiamilev, and George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA, “Description and evaluation of the FAST-Net smart pixel-based optical interconnection prototype,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 819–828 (2000).

Volckaerts, B.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Vynck, P.

C. Debaes, M. Vervaeke, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, B. Volckaerts, W. Meeus, M. Brunfaut, J. Van Campenhout, A. Hermanne, and H. Thienpont, “Low-cost microoptical modules for MCM level optical interconnections,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(2), 518–530 (2003).

H. Thienpont, C. Debaes, V. Baukens, H. Ottevaere, P. Vynck, P. Tuteleers, G. Verschaffelt, B. Volckaerts, A. Hermanne, M. Hanney, and Vrije Univ., Brussels, “Plastic microoptical interconnection modules for parallel free-space inter- and intra-MCM data communication,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 769–779 (2000).

Wang, S.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Wicks, G.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Wu, H.

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

Wu, Hui

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

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R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. M. Spillane, D. Vantrease, Q. Xu, and HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” 16th IEEE Symp. High Performance Interconnects, HOTI ’08 182–189 (2008).

Xue, J.

B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

J. Xue, A. Garg, B. Ciftcioglu, Jianyun Hu, S. Wang, I. Savidis, M. Jain, R. Berman, P. Liu, M. Huang, H. Wu, E. Friedman, G. Wicks, and D. Moore, “An intra-chip free-space optical interconnect,” 37th Int. Symp. Computer Architecture ISCA 94–105 (2010).

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B. Ciftcioglu, R. Berman, J. Zhang, Z. Darling, S. Wang, J. Hu, J. Xue, A. Garg, M. Jain, I. Savidis, D. Moore, M. Huang, E. G. Friedman, G. Wicks, and Hui Wu, “A 3-D integrated intra-chip free-space optical interconnect for many-core chips,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 164–166 (2011).

B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

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I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf.468–469 (2009).

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B. Ciftcioglu, J. Zhang, R. Sobolewski, and H. Wu, “An 850-nm normal-incidence germanium metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with 13-GHz bandwidth and 8-μA dark current,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(24), 1851–1853 (2010).

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