Abstract

Errors in the estimated constituent concentrations in optically complex waters due solely to sensor noise in a spaceborne hyperspectral sensor can be as high as 80%. The goal of this work is to elucidate the effect of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the accuracy of retrieved constituent concentrations. Large variations in the magnitude and spectral shape of the reflectances from coastal waters complicate the impact of SNR on the accuracy of estimation. Due to the low reflectance of water, the actual SNR encountered for a water target is usually quite lower than the prescribed SNR. The low SNR can be a significant source of error in the estimated constituent concentrations. Simulated and measured at-surface reflectances were used in this study. A radiative transfer code, Tafkaa, was used to propagate the at-surface reflectances up and down through the atmosphere. A sensor noise model based on that of the spaceborne hyperspectral sensor HICO was applied to the at-sensor radiances. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a, colored dissolved organic matter, and total suspended solids were estimated using an optimized error minimization approach and a few semi-analytical algorithms. Improving the SNR by reasonably modifying the sensor design can reduce estimation uncertainties by 10% or more.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (2)

D. Gurlin, A. A. Gitelson, and W. J. Moses, “Remote estimation of chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters – return to a simple two-band NIR-red model?” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3479–3490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lucke, M. Corson, N. R. McGlothlin, S. D. Butcher, D. L. Wood, D. R. Korwan, R. R. Li, W. A. Snyder, C. O. Davis, and D. T. Chen, “Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean: instrument description and first images,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1501–1516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

M. S. Salama and A. Stein, “Error decomposition and estimation of inherent optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 48(26), 4947–4962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gitelson, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, and T. Barrow, “A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045003), 5 (2009).

W. Moses, A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Satellite estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration using the red and NIR bands of MERIS - the Azov Sea case study,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 6(4), 845–849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moses, A. A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data - successes and challenges,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045005), 8 (2009).

2008 (1)

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

R. L. Lucke and R. A. Kessel, “Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and exposure time for imaging systems with photon-limited noise,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 056403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Dall’Olmo and A. A. Gitelson, “Effect of bio-optical parameter variability on the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters: experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 412–422 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, V. I. Haltrin, and W. Goode, “Uniqueness in remote sensing of the inherent optical properties of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2156–2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and eo-1 hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1378–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Müller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, and C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39(6), 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Gitelson, “The peak near 700 nm on radiance spectra of algae and water - relationships of its magnitude and position with chlorophyll concentration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13(17), 3367–3373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Müller-Karger, J. J. Walsh, R. H. Evans, and M. B. Meyers, “On the seasonal phytoplankton concentration and sea surface temperature cycles of the Gulf of Mexico as determined by satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C7), 12645–12665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1473–1483 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meterol. 18(2), 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. W. Marquardt, “An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters,” SIAM J. Appl. Math. 11(2), 431–441 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Q. Appl. Math. 2, 164–168 (1944).

Ahmad, Z.

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

M. Sydor, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, V. I. Haltrin, and W. Goode, “Uniqueness in remote sensing of the inherent optical properties of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2156–2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, K. A.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Barrow, T.

A. Gitelson, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, and T. Barrow, “A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045003), 5 (2009).

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berdnikov, S.

W. Moses, A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Satellite estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration using the red and NIR bands of MERIS - the Azov Sea case study,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 6(4), 845–849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moses, A. A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data - successes and challenges,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045005), 8 (2009).

Bissett, P. W.

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

Boardman, J. W.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and eo-1 hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Brando, V. E.

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1378–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briggs-Whitmire, A.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Butcher, S. D.

Campbell, J. W.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Müller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

M. Defoin-Platel and M. Chami, “How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters?” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C3), C03004 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Chang, G.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Chen, D. T.

Chen, F. R.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Claustre, H.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corson, M.

Dall’Olmo, G.

Dall'Olmo, G.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Darecki, M.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. O.

Defoin-Platel, M.

M. Defoin-Platel and M. Chami, “How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters?” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C3), C03004 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

V. E. Brando and A. G. Dekker, “Satellite hyperspectral remote sensing for estimating estuarine and coastal water quality,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1378–1387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, T. D.

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Dye, D.

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

Evans, R. H.

F. E. Müller-Karger, J. J. Walsh, R. H. Evans, and M. B. Meyers, “On the seasonal phytoplankton concentration and sea surface temperature cycles of the Gulf of Mexico as determined by satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C7), 12645–12665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, G. M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, T. R.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B. C.

Garver, S. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gitelson, A.

W. Moses, A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Satellite estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration using the red and NIR bands of MERIS - the Azov Sea case study,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 6(4), 845–849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gitelson, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, and T. Barrow, “A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045003), 5 (2009).

A. Gitelson, “The peak near 700 nm on radiance spectra of algae and water - relationships of its magnitude and position with chlorophyll concentration,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 13(17), 3367–3373 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gitelson, A. A.

D. Gurlin, A. A. Gitelson, and W. J. Moses, “Remote estimation of chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters – return to a simple two-band NIR-red model?” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3479–3490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moses, A. A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data - successes and challenges,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045005), 8 (2009).

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall’Olmo and A. A. Gitelson, “Effect of bio-optical parameter variability on the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters: experimental results,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 412–422 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goode, W.

Gould, R. W.

M. Sydor, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, V. I. Haltrin, and W. Goode, “Uniqueness in remote sensing of the inherent optical properties of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 43(10), 2156–2162 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

Gurlin, D.

D. Gurlin, A. A. Gitelson, and W. J. Moses, “Remote estimation of chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters – return to a simple two-band NIR-red model?” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3479–3490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Gitelson, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, and T. Barrow, “A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045003), 5 (2009).

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haltrin, V. I.

Hawes, S. K.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holz, J.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holz, J. C.

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

Z. P. Lee, R. Arnone, C. Hu, P. J. Werdell, and B. Lubac, “Uncertainties of optical parameters and their propagations in an analytical ocean color inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 369–381 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Müller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huntington, J. F.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and eo-1 hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1388–1400 (2003).
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J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamykowski, D.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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R. L. Lucke and R. A. Kessel, “Signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio and exposure time for imaging systems with photon-limited noise,” Opt. Eng. 45(5), 056403 (2006).
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Kim, M.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Kohler, D. D. R.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

P. W. Bissett, R. A. Arnone, C. O. Davis, T. D. Dickey, D. Dye, D. D. R. Kohler, and R. W. Gould, “From meters to kilometers - a look at ocean color scales of variability, spatial coherence, and the need for fine scale remote sensing in coastal ocean optics,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 32–43 (2004).

Korwan, D. R.

Kruse, F. A.

F. A. Kruse, J. W. Boardman, and J. F. Huntington, “Comparison of airborne hyperspectral data and eo-1 hyperion for mineral mapping,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 41(6), 1388–1400 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, B.

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, R. Arnone, C. Hu, P. J. Werdell, and B. Lubac, “Uncertainties of optical parameters and their propagations in an analytical ocean color inversion algorithm,” Appl. Opt. 49(3), 369–381 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, Z. P. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and D. Kamykowski, “Semianalytic moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer algorithms for chlorophyll a and absorption with bio-optical domains based on nitrate-depletion temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(C3), 5403–5421 (1999).
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K. Levenberg, “A method for the solution of certain non-linear problems in least squares,” Q. Appl. Math. 2, 164–168 (1944).

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Lewis, M.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Li, R. R.

Lubac, B.

Lucke, R. L.

Mahoney, K.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Maritorena, S.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
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J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McGlothlin, N. R.

Meyers, M. B.

F. E. Müller-Karger, J. J. Walsh, R. H. Evans, and M. B. Meyers, “On the seasonal phytoplankton concentration and sea surface temperature cycles of the Gulf of Mexico as determined by satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C7), 12645–12665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B. G.

K. L. Carder, F. R. Chen, J. P. Cannizzaro, J. W. Campbell, and B. G. Mitchell, “Performance of the MODIS semi-analytical ocean color algorithm for chlorophyll-a,” Adv. Space Res. 33(7), 1152–1159 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

C. D. Mobley, “A numerical model for the computation of radiance distributions in natural waters with wind roughened surfaces,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1473–1483 (1989).
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Moline, M. A.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Montes, M. J.

Morel, A.

A. Morel, “In-water and remote measurement of ocean color,” Boundary-Layer Meterol. 18(2), 177–201 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Moses, W.

A. Gitelson, D. Gurlin, W. Moses, and T. Barrow, “A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045003), 5 (2009).

W. Moses, A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Satellite estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration using the red and NIR bands of MERIS - the Azov Sea case study,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 6(4), 845–849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, W. J.

D. Gurlin, A. A. Gitelson, and W. J. Moses, “Remote estimation of chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters – return to a simple two-band NIR-red model?” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3479–3490 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Moses, A. A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data - successes and challenges,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045005), 8 (2009).

Müller-Karger, F. E.

C. Hu, K. L. Carder, and F. E. Müller-Karger, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery over turbid coastal waters: a practical method,” Remote Sens. Environ. 74(2), 195–206 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Müller-Karger, J. J. Walsh, R. H. Evans, and M. B. Meyers, “On the seasonal phytoplankton concentration and sea surface temperature cycles of the Gulf of Mexico as determined by satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C7), 12645–12665 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Reilly, J. E.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Philpot, W.

G. Chang, K. Mahoney, A. Briggs-Whitmire, D. D. R. Kohler, C. D. Mobley, M. Lewis, M. A. Moline, E. Boss, M. Kim, W. Philpot, and T. D. Dickey, “The new age of hyperspectral oceanography,” Oceanography (Wash. D.C.) 17(2), 16–23 (2004).

Povazhnyy, V.

W. J. Moses, A. A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data - successes and challenges,” Environ. Res. Lett. 4(045005), 8 (2009).

W. Moses, A. Gitelson, S. Berdnikov, and V. Povazhnyy, “Satellite estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration using the red and NIR bands of MERIS - the Azov Sea case study,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 6(4), 845–849 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22(4), 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, D. C.

A. A. Gitelson, G. Dall'Olmo, W. Moses, D. C. Rundquist, T. Barrow, T. R. Fisher, D. Gurlin, and J. Holz, “A simple semi-analytical model for remote estimation of chlorophyll-a in turbid waters: validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 112(9), 3582–3593 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dall'Olmo, A. A. Gitelson, D. C. Rundquist, B. Leavitt, T. Barrow, and J. C. Holz, “Assessing the potential of SeaWiFS and MODIS for estimating chlorophyll concentration in turbid productive waters using red and near-infrared bands,” Remote Sens. Environ. 96(2), 176–187 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salama, M. S.

Siegel, D. A.

J. E. O'Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res.- Oceans 103(C11), 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, W. A.

Stein, A.

Steward, R. G.

K. L. Carder, S. K. Hawes, K. A. Baker, R. C. Smith, R. G. Steward, and B. G. Mitchell, “Reflectance model for quantifying chlorophyll a in the presence of productivity degradation products,” J. Geophys. Res. 96(C11), 20599–20611 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stramski, D.

M. Darecki and D. Stramski, “An evaluation of MODIS and SeaWiFS bio-optical algorithms in the Baltic Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 89(3), 326–350 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, nonalgal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3211 (2003), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stumpf, R. P.

Sydor, M.

Walsh, J. J.

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