Abstract

The proof-of-concept of an infrared imaging tip by an array of infrared waveguides tapered as small as 2 μm is demonstrated. The fabrication is based on a high-pressure chemical fluid deposition technique to deposit precisely defined periodic arrays of Ge and Si waveguides within a microstructured optical fiber template made of silica to demonstrate the proposed concept at wavelengths of 10.64 µm and 1.55 µm, respectively. The essential features of the imaging system such as isolation between adjacent pixels, magnification, optical throughput, and image transfer characteristics are investigated. Near-field scanning at 3.39 μm wavelength using a single tapered Ge core is also demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Gal, J. Harrington, M. Ben-David, C. Bledt, N. Syzonenko, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for thermal imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4700–4709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Zhang, and T. D. Milster, “GaP solid immersion lens based on diffraction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03A047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Michaels, “Mid-infrared imaging with a solid immersion lens and broadband laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Reich, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: basic principles and pharmaceutical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(8), 1109–1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

2002 (1)

J. F. Head and R. L. Elliott, “Infrared imaging: making progress in fulfilling its medical promise,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 21(6), 80–85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. J. Titman, “Applications of thermography in non-destructive testing of structures,” NDT Int. 34(2), 149–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Mendelsohn, E. P. Paschalis, P. J. Sherman, and A. L. Boskey, “IR microscopic imaging of pathological states and fracture healing of bone,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(8), 1183–1191 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, Y.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Badding, J. V.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balatsky, A.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baril, N. F.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becklin, E. E.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ben-David, M.

Bledt, C.

Borhan, A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boskey, A. L.

Brehm, M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B.-G.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Condon, J. J.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crespi, V. H.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egami, E.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elings, V. B.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, R. L.

J. F. Head and R. L. Elliott, “Infrared imaging: making progress in fulfilling its medical promise,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 21(6), 80–85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, A. S.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, C. E.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. A.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frenzel, A.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furuki, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gal, U.

Gannot, I.

U. Gal, J. Harrington, M. Ben-David, C. Bledt, N. Syzonenko, and I. Gannot, “Coherent hollow-core waveguide bundles for thermal imaging,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), 4700–4709 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Ghislain, L. P.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, K. E.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, V.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Gopalan, V.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goren, A.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Guarini, K. W.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J.

Harrington, J. A.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Hayes, J. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, R.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head, J. F.

J. F. Head and R. L. Elliott, “Infrared imaging: making progress in fulfilling its medical promise,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 21(6), 80–85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, N.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillenbrand, R.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. C.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huth, F.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ide, N.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishimoto, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, B. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katzier, A.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, M. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keshavarzi, B.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B.-J.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-T.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, J. Zhang, and T. D. Milster, “GaP solid immersion lens based on diffraction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03A047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kino, G. S.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthi, M.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagonigro, L.

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lo, T.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manalis, S. R.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maple, M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Margine, E. R.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, K.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, P.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mendelsohn, R.

Michaels, C. A.

C. A. Michaels, “Mid-infrared imaging with a solid immersion lens and broadband laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Milster, T. D.

Y. Kim, J. Zhang, and T. D. Milster, “GaP solid immersion lens based on diffraction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03A047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minne, S. C.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoki, A.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Neugebauer, G.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ocelic, N.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ono, A.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paschalis, E. P.

Peacock, A. C.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qazilbash, M. M.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rave, E.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Reich, G.

G. Reich, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: basic principles and pharmaceutical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(8), 1109–1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ressler, M.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Revezin, G.

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Saito, K.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sazio, P. J. A.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scheidemantel, T. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, M.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scoville, N. Z.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sherman, P. J.

Shimouma, T.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shinoda, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shpyrko, O.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soifer, B. T.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sparks, J. R.

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered silicon optical fibers,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7596–7601 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surace, J. A.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Syzonenko, N.

Taday, P. F.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Temnykh, I. A.

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Titman, D. J.

D. J. Titman, “Applications of thermography in non-destructive testing of structures,” NDT Int. 34(2), 149–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trendafilov, S.

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tribe, W. R.

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verma, P.

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, A. J.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Werner, M. W.

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilder, K.

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wittborn, J.

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Won, D. J.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

Y. Kim, J. Zhang, and T. D. Milster, “GaP solid immersion lens based on diffraction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03A047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

G. Reich, “Near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging: basic principles and pharmaceutical applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 57(8), 1109–1143 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

N. F. Baril, B. Keshavarzi, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, I. A. Temnykh, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, A. Borhan, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “High-pressure chemical deposition for void-free filling of extreme aspect ratio templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(41), 4605–4611 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Sparks, R. He, N. Healy, M. Krishnamurthi, A. C. Peacock, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Zinc selenide optical fibers,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(14), 1647–1651 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. C. Shen, T. Lo, P. F. Taday, B. E. Cole, W. R. Tribe, and M. C. Kemp, “Detection and identification of explosives using terahertz pulsed spectroscopic imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(24), 241116 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Lagonigro, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, N. F. Baril, P. J. A. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Low loss silicon fibres for photonics applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Ghislain, V. B. Elings, K. B. Crozier, S. R. Manalis, S. C. Minne, K. Wilder, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Near-field photolithography with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(4), 501–503 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Michaels, “Mid-infrared imaging with a solid immersion lens and broadband laser source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121131 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Astron. J. (1)

B. T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, E. E. Becklin, A. J. Weinberger, M. Ressler, M. W. Werner, A. S. Evans, N. Z. Scoville, J. A. Surace, and J. J. Condon, “High resolution mid-infrared imaging of ultraluminous infrared galaxies,” Astron. J. 119(2), 509–523 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. (1)

J. F. Head and R. L. Elliott, “Infrared imaging: making progress in fulfilling its medical promise,” IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Mag. 21(6), 80–85 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

D. A. Fletcher, K. B. Crozier, K. W. Guarini, S. C. Minne, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and K. E. Goodson, “Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 10(3), 450–459 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Shinoda, K. Saito, T. Ishimoto, T. Kondo, A. Nakaoki, N. Ide, M. Furuki, M. Takeda, Y. Akiyama, T. Shimouma, and M. Yamamoto, “High-density near-field optical disc recording,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(5B), 3537–3541 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, J. Zhang, and T. D. Milster, “GaP solid immersion lens based on diffraction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(3), 03A047 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Kawata, A. Ono, and P. Verma, “Subwavelength colour imaging with a metallic nanolens,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 438–442 (2008).
[CrossRef]

NDT Int. (1)

D. J. Titman, “Applications of thermography in non-destructive testing of structures,” NDT Int. 34(2), 149–154 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Qazilbash, M. Brehm, G. O. Andreev, A. Frenzel, P. C. Ho, B.-G. Chae, B.-J. Kim, S. Yun, H.-T. Kim, A. Balatsky, O. Shpyrko, M. Maple, F. Keilmann, and D. Basov, “Infrared spectroscopy and nano-imaging of the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. B 79(7), 075107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. Shvets, S. Trendafilov, J. B. Pendry, and A. Sarychev, “Guiding, focusing, and sensing on the subwavelength scale using metallic wire arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(5), 053903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Gannot, A. Goren, E. Rave, A. Katzier, V. Gopal, G. Revezin, and J. A. Harrington, “Thermal imaging through infrared fiber/waveguides bundles,” Proc. SPIE 5317, 95 (2004).

Science (1)

P. J. A. Sazio, A. Amezcua-Correa, C. E. Finlayson, J. R. Hayes, T. J. Scheidemantel, N. F. Baril, B. R. Jackson, D. J. Won, F. Zhang, E. R. Margine, V. Gopalan, V. H. Crespi, and J. V. Badding, “Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors,” Science 311(5767), 1583–1586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, New York 1998).

K. B. Cozier, D. A. Fletcher, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, and H. T. Soh, “Near field optical scanning system employing microfabricated solid immersion lens,” US Patent 6441359 (2002).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the proposed tapered fiber design. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of a silica based microstructured optical fiber used as a template for fabricating the proposed structure. (c) A two-dimensional COMSOLTM simulation of four 300 μm long tapered Ge waveguides (3.5/13 μm input/output diameters, pitch of 11.5/15 μm at the input and output facets). A metal mask (modeled as perfect conductor) at the input left end covers the input end except for three of the Ge waveguides. Plane waves at λ = 10.6 μm are launched at the narrow input end and detected at the broader output end. Cross-talk between the pixels is <1%, as calculated from the ratio of the transmitted intensities from the blocked pixel to that from a transmitting pixel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical micrograph of a tapered silica capillary (a,c) before, and (b,d) after Si deposition (a,b), and Ge deposition (c,d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical micrograph of the tapered array of Ge waveguides at the (a) narrow (input), and (b) wider (output) ends, and a tapered array of Si waveguides at the (c) narrow and (d) wide ends. Specifications are given in Table 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron micrographs of the metal mask exposing the pixels forming the pattern (a) ‘P S U’ and (c) ‘↑’ at the tapered input end of the array of Ge and Si waveguides respectively. The intensity profile of the light transmitted through the (b) Ge and (d) Si fiberscope at 10.6 µm and 1.55 µm wavelengths, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of a near-field scanning optical imaging setup. (b) Scanning electron micrograph of the tapered fiber with a ~1.2 μm Ge core (inset). (c) Conventional visible optical micrograph image of the mask (top), and the corresponding near-field infrared scan (bottom) of the Cr-edge in the nominal contact geometry (probe-sample distance, dps~0), and in non-contact geometry (dps~3μm).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the Ge-Filled and Si-Filled Tapered Structures Fabricated in this Study

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