Abstract

Monitoring (currently invasive) of cerebral venous blood oxygenation is a key to avoiding hypoxia-induced brain injury resulting in death or severe disability. Noninvasive, optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation can potentially replace existing invasive methods. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through intact scalp that was validated with invasive, “gold standard” measurements. We performed an in vivo study in the sheep superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large midline cerebral vein, using our novel, multi-wavelength optoacoustic system. The study results demonstrated that: 1) the optoacoustic signal from the sheep SSS is detectable through the thick, intact scalp and skull; 2) the SSS signal amplitude correlated well with wavelength and actual SSS blood oxygenation measured invasively using SSS catheterization, blood sampling, and measurement with “gold standard” CO-Oximeter; 3) the optoacoustically predicted oxygenation strongly correlated with that measured with the CO-Oximeter. Our results indicate that monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation may be performed in humans noninvasively and accurately through the intact scalp using optoacoustic systems because the sheep scalp and skull thickness is comparable to that of humans whereas the sheep SSS is much smaller than that of humans.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, R. O. Esenaliev, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and D. S. Prough, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation in ovine superior sagittal sinus with novel multi-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7285–7294 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Clinical tests of highly portable, 2-lb, laser diode-based, noninvasive, optoacoustic hemoglobin monitor,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717705, 717705-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Farina, A. Pifferi, and A. Kienle, “Time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy of small tissue samples,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3301–3311 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, D. S. Prough, Y. Y. Petrov, I. Patrikeev, I. Y. Petrova, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16261–16269 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

1996 (2)

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. J. Levy, S. Levin, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared measurement of cerebral oxygenation. Correlation with electroencephalographic ischemia during ventricular fibrillation,” Anesthesiology 83(4), 738–746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

F. J. Fry and J. E. Barger, “Acoustical properties of the human skull,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63(5), 1576–1590 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

Andreev, V. G.

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barger, J. E.

F. J. Fry and J. E. Barger, “Acoustical properties of the human skull,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63(5), 1576–1590 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bratton, S. L.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

Brecht, H. P.

Burgholzer, P.

Chance, B.

W. J. Levy, S. Levin, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared measurement of cerebral oxygenation. Correlation with electroencephalographic ischemia during ventricular fibrillation,” Anesthesiology 83(4), 738–746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chestnut, R. M.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cicenaite, I.

Comelli, D.

Contant, C. F.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeMelo, A. E.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Deyo, D. J.

I. Y. Petrov, Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through extracerebral blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 125–136 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, R. O. Esenaliev, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and D. S. Prough, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation in ovine superior sagittal sinus with novel multi-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7285–7294 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, D. S. Prough, Y. Y. Petrov, I. Patrikeev, I. Y. Petrova, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16261–16269 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Esenaliev, R. O.

I. Y. Petrov, Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through extracerebral blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 125–136 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Clinical tests of highly portable, 2-lb, laser diode-based, noninvasive, optoacoustic hemoglobin monitor,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717705, 717705-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, R. O. Esenaliev, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and D. S. Prough, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation in ovine superior sagittal sinus with novel multi-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7285–7294 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, D. S. Prough, Y. Y. Petrov, I. Patrikeev, I. Y. Petrova, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16261–16269 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, I. Y. Petrova, I. A. Patrikeev, R. O. Esenaliev, and D. S. Prough, “Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1827–1829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farina, A.

Feldman, Z.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, F. J.

F. J. Fry and J. E. Barger, “Acoustical properties of the human skull,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63(5), 1576–1590 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galanzha, E. I.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghajar, J.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

Gopinath, S. P.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gratt, S.

Gratton, E.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, R. G.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, R.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hale, G. M.

Harris, O. A.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

Hartl, R.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Hayes, C.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herzog, E.

Hueber, D.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jose, J.

Kienle, A.

Klasing, M.

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Levin, S.

W. J. Levy, S. Levin, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared measurement of cerebral oxygenation. Correlation with electroencephalographic ischemia during ventricular fibrillation,” Anesthesiology 83(4), 738–746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levy, W. J.

W. J. Levy, S. Levin, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared measurement of cerebral oxygenation. Correlation with electroencephalographic ischemia during ventricular fibrillation,” Anesthesiology 83(4), 738–746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manley, G. T.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Manohar, S.

Mantulin, W.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell Hammond, F. F.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Michalos, A.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayan, R. K.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nemecek, A. w.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

Newell, D. W.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Ntziachristos, V.

Nuster, R.

Paltauf, G.

Passler, K.

Patrikeev, I.

Patrikeev, I. A.

Petrov, I. Y.

Petrov, Y.

Petrov, Y. Y.

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Clinical tests of highly portable, 2-lb, laser diode-based, noninvasive, optoacoustic hemoglobin monitor,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717705, 717705-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, R. O. Esenaliev, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and D. S. Prough, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation in ovine superior sagittal sinus with novel multi-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7285–7294 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Brecht, D. S. Prough, Y. Y. Petrov, I. Patrikeev, I. Y. Petrova, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16261–16269 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, I. Y. Petrova, I. A. Patrikeev, R. O. Esenaliev, and D. S. Prough, “Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1827–1829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrova, I. Y.

Pifferi, A.

Piras, D.

Pollard, V.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Polzonetti, C.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prough, D. S.

I. Y. Petrov, Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic monitoring of cerebral venous blood oxygenation through extracerebral blood,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 125–136 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Clinical tests of highly portable, 2-lb, laser diode-based, noninvasive, optoacoustic hemoglobin monitor,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717705, 717705-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, R. O. Esenaliev, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and D. S. Prough, “Noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation in ovine superior sagittal sinus with novel multi-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7285–7294 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Brecht, D. S. Prough, Y. Y. Petrov, I. Patrikeev, I. Y. Petrova, D. J. Deyo, I. Cicenaite, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo monitoring of blood oxygenation in large veins with a triple-wavelength optoacoustic system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16261–16269 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, I. Y. Petrova, I. A. Patrikeev, R. O. Esenaliev, and D. S. Prough, “Multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive monitoring of cerebral venous oxygenation: a pilot clinical test in the internal jugular vein,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1827–1829 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study,” Appl. Opt. 41(22), 4722–4731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Razansky, D.

Resink, S.

Robertson, C. S.

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenthal, G.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

Safonova, L. P.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schouten, J.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Shashkov, E. V.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shutter, L.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

Slump, C. H.

Spring, P. M.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

Stoddart, H. F.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

Suen, J. Y.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

Taruttis, A.

Timmons, S. D.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Toronov, V.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, T.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

Ullman, J. S.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

van Hespen, J. C. G.

van Leeuwen, T. G.

Videtta, W.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

Welch, A. J.

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Widman, R.

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Wilberger, J. E.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Willemink, R. G. H.

Wolf, M.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, U.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, D. W.

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

Zharov, V. P.

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anesth. Analg. (2)

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and H. F. Stoddart, “Validation in volunteers of a near-infrared spectroscope for monitoring brain oxygenation in vivo,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 269–277 (1996).
[PubMed]

V. Pollard, D. S. Prough, A. E. DeMelo, D. J. Deyo, T. Uchida, and R. Widman, “The influence of carbon dioxide and body position on near-infrared spectroscopic assessment of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation,” Anesth. Analg. 82(2), 278–287 (1996).
[PubMed]

Anesthesiology (2)

W. J. Levy, S. Levin, and B. Chance, “Near-infrared measurement of cerebral oxygenation. Correlation with electroencephalographic ischemia during ventricular fibrillation,” Anesthesiology 83(4), 738–746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, M. Klasing, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Optoacoustic, noninvasive, real-time, continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation: an in vivo study in sheep,” Anesthesiology 102(1), 69–75 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Cancer Res. (1)

E. I. Galanzha, E. V. Shashkov, P. M. Spring, J. Y. Suen, and V. P. Zharov, “In vivo, noninvasive, label-free detection and eradication of circulating metastatic melanoma cells using two-color photoacoustic flow cytometry with a diode laser,” Cancer Res. 69(20), 7926–7934 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W.-F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

F. J. Fry and J. E. Barger, “Acoustical properties of the human skull,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63(5), 1576–1590 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry (1)

S. P. Gopinath, C. S. Robertson, C. F. Contant, C. Hayes, Z. Feldman, R. K. Narayan, and R. G. Grossman, “Jugular venous desaturation and outcome after head injury,” J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 57(6), 717–723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurotrauma (3)

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. I. Blood pressure and oxygenation,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S7–S13 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. X. Brain oxygen monitoring and thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S65–S70 (2007).

S. L. Bratton, R. M. Chestnut, J. Ghajar, F. F. McConnell Hammond, O. A. Harris, R. Hartl, G. T. Manley, A. w. Nemecek, D. W. Newell, G. Rosenthal, J. Schouten, L. Shutter, S. D. Timmons, J. S. Ullman, W. Videtta, J. E. Wilberger, and D. W. Wright, “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. IX. Cerebral perfusion thresholds,” J. Neurotrauma 24(Supplement 1), S59–S64 (2007).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. Y. Petrova, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Clinical tests of highly portable, 2-lb, laser diode-based, noninvasive, optoacoustic hemoglobin monitor,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 717705, 717705-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Andreev, Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, I. Y. Petrova, and R. O. Esenaliev, “Novel optoacoustic array for noninvasive monitoring of blood parameters,” Proc. SPIE 7177, 71770O, 71770O-6 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

ANSI Z136, 1 – 2000” in American national standard for safe use of lasers (The Laser Institute of America, Orlando, FL, 2000).

V. V. Tuchin, Tissue Optics: Light scattering methods and instruments for medical diagnostics, 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2007).

J. Enderle, S. Blanchard, and J. Bronzino, Introduction to Biomedical Engineering (Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 2000), Chap. 15.

S. Jacques, “Optical absorption of hemoglobin,” Oregon Medical Laser Center, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/index.html .

Y. Y. Petrov, D. S. Prough, D. J. Deyo, I. Y. Petrova, M. Motamedi, and R. O. Esenaliev, “In vivo noninvasive monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation with optoacoustic technique,” in Proceedings of the 26th Intern. Conf. of IEEE EMBS (Inst. of Electr. and Electronics Engineers, NY, 2004), 2052–2054.

S. Jacques, “Optical absorption of melanin,” Oregon Medical Laser Center, http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/melanin/mua.html .

D. S. Prough, V. Yancy, and D. J. Deyo, “Brain monitoring: considerations in patients with craniocerebral missile wounds,” in Missile Wounds of the Head and Neck, B. Aarabi and H. H. Kaufman, eds., (The American Association of Neurosurgical Surgeons, Rolling Meadows, IL, 1999), 221–253.

V. Pollard and D. S. Prough, “Cerebral oxygenation: near-infrared spectroscopy,” in Principles and Practice of Intensive Care Monitoring, M. J. Tobin, ed., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1998), 1019–1033.

R. O. Esenaliev, K. V. Larin, I. V. Larina, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, “Optoacoustic technique for non-invasive continuous monitoring of blood oxygenation,” in Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington DC, 2000), 272–274.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optoacoustic signals from the exposed sheep skull and the SSS at wavelengths of 700 nm (a), 805 nm (b), and 1064 nm (c) for different SSS blood oxygenation: 65% (blue line), 22% (green line), and 80% (red line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optoacoustic signals from a sheep with intact scalp measured at 700 nm (a), 805 nm (b), and 1064 nm (c) for different SSS blood oxygenation: 26.5% (blue line), 45% (green line), and 93.5% (red line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation of the normalized SSS signal amplitudes measured at 700 nm (blue triangles) and 1064 nm (red circles) with actual SSS blood oxygenation measured invasively. The dashed lines are linear fit to the data sets (R2 = 0.712 and 0.869 for 700 nm and 1064 nm, respectively).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) High correlation between the optoacoustically predicted and actual blood oxygenation in the SSS of a sheep with intact scalp; (b) Standard deviation and bias of the difference between the optoacoustically predicted and actual SSS blood oxygenation.

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