Abstract

Results of a self-consistent ultrafast study of nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanowaveguides using heterodyne pump-probe technique are reported. The two-photon absorption coefficient and free-carrier absorption effective cross-section were determined to be 0.68cm/GW, and 1.9x10−17 cm2, respectively and the Kerr coefficient and free-carrier-induced refractive index change 0.32x10−13 cm2/W, and −5.5x10−21 cm3, respectively. The effects of the proton bombardment on the linear loss and the carrier lifetime of the devices were also studied. Carrier lifetime reduction from 330ps to 33ps with a linear loss of only 14.8dB/cm was achieved using a proton bombardment level of 1015/cm2.

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2011 (1)

2010 (14)

N. Fujioka, T. Chu, and M. Ishizaka, “Compact and low power consumption hybrid integrated wavelength tunable laser module using silicon waveguide resonators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3115–3120 (2010).

H. Ji, M. Galili, H. Hu, M. H. Pu, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK data signal using a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

B. Jalali, “Silicon photonics nonlinear optics in the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 506–508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 492–494 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Appl. Opt. 49(25), F59–F70 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Lee, L. H. Yin, G. P. Agrawal, and P. M. Fauchet, “Ultrafast optical switching based on nonlinear polarization rotation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11514–11523 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, M. Dahlem, M. A. Popovic, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 2044–2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, Y.-K. Chen, S. Chandrasekhar, M. S. Rasras, L. Chen, T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, and G.-Q. Lo, “Monolithic polarization and phase diversity coherent receiver in silicon,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 520–525 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, J. S. Levy, C. B. Poitras, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultrashort free-carrier lifetime in low-loss silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3582–3591 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (6)

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovi, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications,” Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z, 68720Z-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Motamedi, J. J. Plant, J. P. Donnelly, P. W. Juodawlkis, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast nonlinearities and gain dynamics in high-power semiconductor amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, “Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. P. Knights and G. F. Hopper, “Effect of ion implantation induced defects on optical attenuation in silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1648–1649 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P. G. Coleman, C. P. Burrows, and A. P. Knights, “Simple expression for vacancy concentrations at half ion range following MeV ion implantation of silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(6), 947–949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Akiyama, S.

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amatya, R.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

Apiratikul, P.

Araghchini, M.

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

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Baehr-Jones, T.

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C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, M. Dahlem, M. A. Popovic, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 2044–2052 (2010).
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Foster, P. J.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, “Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(7), 073101 (2006).
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F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
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F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
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F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
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F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
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Morse, M.

Motamedi, A.

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O'Donnell, F. J.

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F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
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F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oxenlowe, L. K.

H. Ji, M. Galili, H. Hu, M. H. Pu, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK data signal using a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

Paniccia, M.

Park, M.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Pavesi, L.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrott, M.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Plant, J. J.

A. R. Motamedi, J. J. Plant, J. P. Donnelly, P. W. Juodawlkis, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrafast nonlinearities and gain dynamics in high-power semiconductor amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Popovi, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovi, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications,” Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z, 68720Z-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

A. Khilo, M. A. Popović, M. Araghchini, and F. X. Kärtner, “Efficient planar fiber-to-chip coupler based on two-stage adiabatic evolution,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15790–15806 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, M. Dahlem, M. A. Popovic, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 2044–2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poulton, C.

Preston, K.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pu, M. H.

H. Ji, M. Galili, H. Hu, M. H. Pu, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK data signal using a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rackich, P. T.

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovi, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications,” Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z, 68720Z-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

Ray, K. G.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

Rong, H.

Rossi, A. M.

Rubin, D.

Saini, S. S.

Salem, R.

Samara-Rubio, D.

Sanchis, P.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulein, R. T.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Shi, J.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Shubin, I. N.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Sih, V.

Smith, H. I.

C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, M. Dahlem, M. A. Popovic, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 2044–2052 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovi, F. Gan, M. S. Dahlem, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kartner, and H. I. Smith, “Reconfigurable silicon photonic circuits for telecommunication applications,” Proc. SPIE 6872, 68720Z, 68720Z-12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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Spano, R.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, J. V. Galán, J. García-Rupérez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, S. Hernández, R. Spano, R. Guider, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a silicon-nanocrystal-based silicon slot waveguide at telecom wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1506–1511 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spector, S. J.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
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Thacker, H.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang and Y. Liu, “Nonlinear optical properties of silicon waveguides,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(6), 064007 (2008).
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Turner-Foster, A. C.

Twichell, J. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
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Valley, G. C.

Vuckovic, J.

D. Englund, H. Altug, B. Ellis, and J. Vučković, “Ultrafast photonic crystal lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 2(4), 264–274 (2008).
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Wasserman, J. L.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
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Williamson, R. C.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
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Winzer, P. J.

Xu, Q. F.

Xu, S.

Yao, J.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Yin, L.

Yin, L. H.

Yoon, J. U.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Younger, R. D.

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yvind, K.

H. Ji, M. Galili, H. Hu, M. H. Pu, L. K. Oxenlowe, K. Yvind, J. M. Hvam, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28-Tb/s demultiplexing of an OTDM DPSK data signal using a silicon waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(23), 1762–1764 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. Z.

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Zhou, G. R.

F. X. Kartner, R. Amatya, M. Araghchini, J. Birge, H. Byun, J. Chen, M. Dahlem, N. A. DiLello, F. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, A. Khilo, J. Kim, M. Kim, A. Motamedi, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovi, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, G. R. Zhou, S. J. Spector, T. M. Lyszczarz, M. W. Geis, D. M. Lennon, J. U. Yoon, M. E. Grein, and R. T. Schulein, “Photonic analog-to-digital conversion with electronic-photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE 6898, 689806, 689806-15 (2008).
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A. P. Knights and G. F. Hopper, “Effect of ion implantation induced defects on optical attenuation in silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39(23), 1648–1649 (2003).
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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, and R. C. Williamson, “Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49(10), 1840–1853 (2001).
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C. W. Holzwarth, A. Khilo, M. Dahlem, M. A. Popovic, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Device architecture and precision nanofabrication of microring-resonator filter banks for integrated photonic systems,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 2044–2052 (2010).
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C. Koos, L. Jacome, C. Poulton, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon-on-insulator waveguides for all-optical signal processing,” Opt. Express 15(10), 5976–5990 (2007).
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Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX (1)

G. L. Li, X. Z. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, P. Dong, D. Z. Feng, S. R. Liao, R. Shafiiha, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, I. N. Shubin, D. Patil, F. Liu, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power silicon photonic interconnect for high-performance computing systems,” Optoelectronic Interconnects and Component Integration IX 7607, 760703 (2010).

Proc. SPIE (3)

F. X. Kärtner, S. Akiyama, G. Barbastathis, T. Barwicz, H. Byun, D. T. Danielson, F. Gan, F. Grawert, C. W. Holzwarth, J. L. Hoyt, E. P. Ippen, M. Kim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Liu, J. Michel, O. O. Olubuyide, J. S. Orcutt, M. Park, M. Perrott, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rackich, R. J. Ram, H. I. Smith, and M. R. Watts, “Electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed, high resolution, analog to digital conversion,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612503, 612503-14 (2006).
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A. Alduino, L. Liao, R. Jones, M. Morse, B. Kim, W.-Z. Lo, J. Basak, B. Koch, H.-F. Liu, H. Rong, M. Sysak, C. Krause, R. Saba, D. Lazar, L. Horwitz, R. Bar, S. Litski, A. Liu, K. Sullivan, O. Dosunmu, N. Na, T. Yin, F. Haubensack, I. W. Hsieh, J. Heck, R. Beatty, H. Park, J. Bovington, S. Lee, H. Nguyen, H. Au, K. Nguyen, P. Merani, M. Hakami, and M. Paniccia, “Demonstration of a high speed 4-channel integrated silicon photonics WDM link with hybrid silicon lasers,” in Integrated Photonics Research, Silicon and Nanophotonics, (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper PDIWI5 (2010).

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M. A. Popovic, T. Barwicz, M. S. Dahlem, F. W. Gan, C. W. Holzwarth, P. T. Rakich, M. R. Watts, H. I. Smith, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “Hitless-reconfigurable and bandwidth-scalable silicon photonic circuits for telecom and interconnect applications,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, 2296–2298 (2008).

J. S. Orcutt, A. Khilo, M. A. Popovic, C. W. Holzwarth, H. Li, J. Sun, B. Moss, M. S. Dahlem, E. P. Ippen, J. L. Hoyt, V. Stojanovic, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, “Photonic integration in a commercial scaled bulk-CMOS process,” in International Conference on Photonics in Switching 2009, 170–171 (2009).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A photograph of the physical chip on a mount, 1cm in width and about 2.2cm in length. (b) One of the paper clips and bends implemented using high-index contrast (HIC) waveguides. The diameter of each bend is 6μm. (c) Cross-section of the silicon waveguide structure fabricated on silicon substrate with SiO2 and HSQ cladding layer. (d) The electric field profile of the fundamental TE mode of a high-index contrast silicon waveguide with 106×475nm core.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the heterodyne pump-probe experimental setup in this study. The inset shows the relation between the pump, probe, and reference pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The notation used for studying waveguide losses, which include input, output, and linear losses. The “input” port is defined to be the port that the pump and probe pulses are coupled into the device. The “output” port is defined to be the port that the light is collected from the device and directed to the photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total loss as a function of waveguide length. Linear loss of 6.5dB/cm and total coupling loss of 20.8dB were measured.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Response of the silicon waveguide when the light is coupled in the forward and then in the backward directions as a function of the average power, with the source as described in Section 4. The straight line corresponds to the linear response with no nonlinearities. (b) Nonlinear loss in the forward and reverse direction as a function of the input power, and the difference between the two coupling losses, resulting in 5.6dB loss difference (inset).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Change in the magnitude of the probe signal transmission as a function of delay between the pump and probe signals for pump pulse energies shown in the legend. (b) The magnitude of the TPA and FCA loss as a function of input pulse energy extracted from the pump-probe traces is shown. The measured and calculated total loss due to TPA and FCA in a silicon waveguide with cross section of 106nm × 475nm and length of 14.9mm are shown. The TPA loss is shown with (+) markers and the slope of the linear line indicates the TPA coefficient. The measured FCA loss is shown with (+) markers, and the quadratic fit was achieved using the calculated carrier density in the device with FCA effective cross section of 1.9×10−17cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured (+) output energy as a function of the input power in the silicon waveguide of length 1.49cm. The linear response is also plotted. ΔE demonstrates the loss due to the nonlinearity in the device.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output pulse energy as a function of the input pulse energy of the 14.9mm long silicon waveguide. The simulation was performed using β = 0.68 cm/GW and σ = 1.9x10−17 cm2, αlin = 150 cm−1, τ = 180fs, λ = 1500nm, repetition rate = 80MHz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Total number of TPA-generated carriers in the waveguide as a function of the input pulse energy. (+) data is calculated based on direct measurement of the output pulse energy vs input pulse energy. The solid black line is the result obtained from numerically simulating the pulse propagation along the device.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Measured probe phase change as a function of the delay between the pump and probe pulses for pump pulse energies indicated in the legend. (b) Optical Kerr effect and free-carrier induced phase change as a function of optical energy. n2 is calculated to be 3.2x10−14 cm2/W. |Δϕ| induced as a function of free-carrier density vs energy is shown on the right axis. The fit is achieved using ξ = −5.5x10−21 cm3.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Linear loss and carrier recovery time as a function of the proton bombardment.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The extracted parameters of the imaginary part of the refractive index at 1500nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Kerr Coefficient and Refractive Index Change Due to Free Carriers

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n I = λ 4π ( α lin +βI+σ f α ( N ) ),
n R = n 0 + n 2 I+ξ f ϕ ( N ),
dP(z,t) dz =( α NL + α lin )P( z,t ),
α NL ( z,t )=βI( z,t )+σ t β ω I 2 ( z,t' )dt' ,
dP(z,t) dz =( β P( z,t ) A TPA +σ 0 t β ω P( z, τ ' ) A TPA P( z, τ ' ) A FCA dτ'+ α lin )P( z,t ),
TPA:I( z,t )= P( z,t ) A TPA
FCA:I( z,t )= P( z,t ) A FCA ,
P in ( dBm ) P out ( dBm )= C in +( α lin L+ α(I)dz )+ C out ,
C in ( dB )= P in ( dBm ) P iw ( dBm ),
C out ( dB )= P ow ( dBm ) P out ( dBm ),
d I s dz =( β I p + α lin ) I s ,
Δ I s I s =β I p ( 1 e α lin L α lin )=β I p L eff ,
α T,FCA = 0 L σN dz=σ 0 L dz t β I 2 ( z, t ' ) ω d t ' =σ N total A FCA ,
I 2 ( z,t )= P( z,t ) A TPA P( z,t ) A FCA .
N Total,e = N Total,h = ΔE 2ω ( 1 e 2 α lin L 1 e α lin L ) e α lin L 2 ,
L FCA,eff = 1exp( 2 α lin L ) 2 α lin .
N Total,e = N Total,h = 0 L N( z ) A FCA dz = 0 L 0 t β ω P( z, τ ' ) A TPA P( z, τ ' ) A FCA dτ' A FCA dz .
Δn= λ 2π L eff Δf= n 2 I,
Δ n FCA =ξ N total A FCA L FCA,eff ,

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