Abstract

A coherent x-ray diffraction experiment was performed on an isolated colloidal crystal grain at the coherence beamline P10 at PETRA III. Using azimuthal rotation scans the three-dimensional (3D) scattered intensity from the sample in the far-field was measured. It includes several Bragg peaks as well as the coherent interference around these peaks. The analysis of the scattered intensity reveals the presence of plane defects in a single grain of the colloidal sample. We confirm these findings by model simulations. In these simulations we also analyze the experimental conditions required to phase the 3D diffraction pattern from a single colloidal grain. This approach has the potential to produce a high resolution image of the sample revealing its inner structure, with possible structural defects.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  31. S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]

2011

M. M. van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, A. V. Petukhov, T. Tyliszczak, J. Wang, B. M. Weckhuysen, F. M. F. de Groot, and E. de Smit, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy as a novel tool to probe colloidal and photonic crystals,” Small 7(6), 804–811 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Bosak, I. Snigireva, K. S. Napolskii, and A. Snigirev, “High-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy: A new tool for mesoscopic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(30), 3256–3259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Mancuso, O. M. Yefanov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent diffractive imaging of biological samples at synchrotron and free electron laser facilities,” J. Biotechnol. 149(4), 229–237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 291–298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, H. Miao, J. Steinbrener, J. Nelson, D. Shapiro, A. Stewart, J. Turner, and C. Jacobsen, “Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13541–13553 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, “Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. A. L. Aarts, and G. J. Vroege, “Destruction of long-range order recorded with in situ small-angle x-ray diffraction in drying colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. Aarts, G. J. Vroege, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Bragg Rods and multiple X-ray scattering in random-stacking colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 028304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 175501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishino, J. Miao, and T. Ishikawa, “Image reconstruction of nanostructured nonperiodic objects only from oversampled hard x-ray diffraction intensities,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Elser, “Phase retrieval by iterated projections,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(1), 40–55 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Smajic, C. Hafner, and D. Erni, “Design and optimization of an achromatic photonic crystal bend,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1378–1384 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, “Partial coherence effects on the imaging of small crystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(47), 10593–10611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. Yannopapas, N. Stefanou, and A. Modinos, “Effect of stacking faults on the optical properties of inverted opals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4811–4814 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu. A. Vlasov, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Baryshev, A. A. Kaplyanskii, O. Z. Karimov, and M. F. Limonov, “Manifestation of intrinsic defects in optical properties of self-organized opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(5), 5784–5793 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

N. A. M. Verhaegh, J. S. van Duijneveldt, A. van Blaaderen, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Direct observation of stacking disorder in a colloidal crystal,” J. Chem. Phys. 102(3), 1416–1422 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. A. M. Verhaegh and A. van Blaaderen, “Dispersions of Rhodamine-labeled silica spheres: synthesis, characterization, and fluorescence confocal scanning Laser microscopy,” Langmuir 10(5), 1427–1438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982

1952

D. Sayre, “The squaring method: a new method for phase determination,” Acta Crystallogr. 5(1), 60–65 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, D. G.

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. Aarts, G. J. Vroege, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Bragg Rods and multiple X-ray scattering in random-stacking colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 028304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aarts, D. G. A. L.

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. A. L. Aarts, and G. J. Vroege, “Destruction of long-range order recorded with in situ small-angle x-ray diffraction in drying colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abramova, V. V.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astratov, V. N.

Yu. A. Vlasov, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Baryshev, A. A. Kaplyanskii, O. Z. Karimov, and M. F. Limonov, “Manifestation of intrinsic defects in optical properties of self-organized opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(5), 5784–5793 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, R.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baryshev, A. V.

Yu. A. Vlasov, V. N. Astratov, A. V. Baryshev, A. A. Kaplyanskii, O. Z. Karimov, and M. F. Limonov, “Manifestation of intrinsic defects in optical properties of self-organized opal photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 61(5), 5784–5793 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauer, G.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, A.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boeck, T.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bosak, A.

A. Bosak, I. Snigireva, K. S. Napolskii, and A. Snigirev, “High-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy: A new tool for mesoscopic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(30), 3256–3259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwman, W. G.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byelov, D.

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Byelov, D. V.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chomski, E.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colvin, V.

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, “Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Groot, F. M. F.

M. M. van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, A. V. Petukhov, T. Tyliszczak, J. Wang, B. M. Weckhuysen, F. M. F. de Groot, and E. de Smit, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy as a novel tool to probe colloidal and photonic crystals,” Small 7(6), 804–811 (2011).
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Martins, M.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meseguer, F.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T. H.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

Miao, J.

Y. Nishino, J. Miao, and T. Ishikawa, “Image reconstruction of nanostructured nonperiodic objects only from oversampled hard x-ray diffraction intensities,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miguez, H.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D.

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, “Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochrie, S. G. J.

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mocuta, C.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Modinos, A.

V. Yannopapas, N. Stefanou, and A. Modinos, “Effect of stacking faults on the optical properties of inverted opals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(21), 4811–4814 (2001).
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Mondia, J. P.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mundboth, K.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Napolskii, K. S.

A. Bosak, I. Snigireva, K. S. Napolskii, and A. Snigirev, “High-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy: A new tool for mesoscopic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(30), 3256–3259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S.

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J.

Nishino, Y.

Y. Nishino, J. Miao, and T. Ishikawa, “Image reconstruction of nanostructured nonperiodic objects only from oversampled hard x-ray diffraction intensities,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 220101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nisius, T.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noy, A.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent, “Coherent methods in the x-ray sciences,” Adv. Phys. 59(1), 1–99 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oepen, H. P.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozin, G. A.

S. John, A. Blanco, E. Chomski, S. Grabtchak, M. Ibisate, S. W. Leonard, C. Lopez, F. Meseguer, H. Miguez, J. P. Mondia, G. A. Ozin, O. Toader, and H. M. van Driel, “Large-scale synthesis of a silicon photonic crystal with a complete three-dimensional bandgap near 1.5 micrometres,” Nature 405(6785), 437–440 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petukhov, A. V.

M. M. van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, A. V. Petukhov, T. Tyliszczak, J. Wang, B. M. Weckhuysen, F. M. F. de Groot, and E. de Smit, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy as a novel tool to probe colloidal and photonic crystals,” Small 7(6), 804–811 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. A. L. Aarts, and G. J. Vroege, “Destruction of long-range order recorded with in situ small-angle x-ray diffraction in drying colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 69(3), 031405 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Petukhov, I. P. Dolbnya, D. G. Aarts, G. J. Vroege, and H. N. W. Lekkerkerker, “Bragg Rods and multiple X-ray scattering in random-stacking colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 028304 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfau, B.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, M. A.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 175501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reime, B.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rengarajan, R.

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, “Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rich, C.

R. Rengarajan, D. Mittleman, C. Rich, and V. Colvin, “Effect of disorder on the optical properties of colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016615 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, M. I.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I.

I. Robinson and R. Harder, “Coherent X-ray diffraction imaging of strain at the nanoscale,” Nat. Mater. 8(4), 291–298 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, I. K.

M. A. Pfeifer, G. J. Williams, I. A. Vartanyants, R. Harder, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional mapping of a deformation field inside a nanocrystal,” Nature 442(7098), 63–66 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 175501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Vartanyants and I. K. Robinson, “Partial coherence effects on the imaging of small crystals using coherent x-ray diffraction,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(47), 10593–10611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rosenhahn, A.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saldin, E.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandy, A. R.

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapoletova, N. A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sayre, D.

P. Thibault, V. Elser, C. Jacobsen, D. Shapiro, and D. Sayre, “Reconstruction of a yeast cell from X-ray diffraction data,” Acta Crystallogr. A 62(4), 248–261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400(6742), 342–344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Sayre, “The squaring method: a new method for phase determination,” Acta Crystallogr. 5(1), 60–65 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Schmidbauer, M.

I. A. Vartanyants, A. V. Zozulya, K. Mundboth, O. M. Yefanov, M. I. Richard, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, T. H. Metzger, G. Bauer, T. Boeck, and M. Schmidbauer, “Crystal truncation planes revealed by three-dimensional reconstruction of reciprocal space,” Phys. Rev. B 77(11), 115317 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schneidmiller, E. A.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schreiber, S.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, A.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, D.

Singer, A.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sinitskii, A.

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smajic, J.

Snigirev, A.

A. Bosak, I. Snigireva, K. S. Napolskii, and A. Snigirev, “High-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy: A new tool for mesoscopic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(30), 3256–3259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Hilhorst, V. V. Abramova, A. Sinitskii, N. A. Sapoletova, K. S. Napolskii, A. A. Eliseev, D. V. Byelov, N. A. Grigoryeva, A. V. Vasilieva, W. G. Bouwman, K. Kvashnina, A. Snigirev, S. V. Grigoriev, and A. V. Petukhov, “Double stacking faults in convectively assembled crystals of colloidal spheres,” Langmuir 25(17), 10408–10412 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snigireva, I.

A. Bosak, I. Snigireva, K. S. Napolskii, and A. Snigirev, “High-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy: A new tool for mesoscopic materials,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(30), 3256–3259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gulden, O. M. Yefanov, A. P. Mancuso, V. V. Abramova, J. Hilhorst, D. Byelov, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, A. V. Petukhov, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent x-ray imaging of defects in colloidal crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 81(22), 224105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68(14), 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sprung, M.

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stadler, L. M.

A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
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Staier, F.

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A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
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G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 175501 (2003).
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A. P. Mancuso, A. Schropp, B. Reime, L. M. Stadler, A. Singer, J. Gulden, S. Streit-Nierobisch, C. Gutt, G. Grübel, J. Feldhaus, F. Staier, R. Barth, A. Rosenhahn, M. Grunze, T. Nisius, T. Wilhein, D. Stickler, H. Stillrich, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, M. Martins, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, S. Eisebitt, B. Faatz, N. Guerassimova, K. Honkavaara, V. Kocharyan, R. Treusch, E. Saldin, S. Schreiber, E. A. Schneidmiller, M. V. Yurkov, E. Weckert, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 035502 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lu, S. G. J. Mochrie, S. Narayanan, A. R. Sandy, and M. Sprung, “How a liquid becomes a glass both on cooling and on heating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(4), 045701 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Williams, M. A. Pfeifer, I. A. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Three-dimensional imaging of microstructure in Au nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 175501 (2003).
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Small

M. M. van Schooneveld, J. Hilhorst, A. V. Petukhov, T. Tyliszczak, J. Wang, B. M. Weckhuysen, F. M. F. de Groot, and E. de Smit, “Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy as a novel tool to probe colloidal and photonic crystals,” Small 7(6), 804–811 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

C. Giacovazzo, H. L. Monaco, G. Artioli, D. Viterbo, G. Ferraris, G. Gilli, G. Zanotti, and M. Catti, Fundamentals of Crystallography (Oxford University Press, 2002).

B. E. Warren, X-Ray Diffraction (Dover Publications Inc., 1990).

For the Coherence Beamline P10 description see: http://hasylab.desy.de/facilities/petra_iii/beamlines/p10_coherence_applications/index_eng.html .

Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: MPEG (2262 KB)     
» Media 2: MPEG (4846 KB)     
» Media 3: MPEG (4180 KB)     
» Media 4: MPEG (3024 KB)     
» Media 5: MPEG (4230 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the CXDI experiment showing the guard slits, the colloidal sample and the detector (Media 1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Selected diffraction patterns measured at different relative angles Δθ of the azimuthal rotation for the colloidal grain one (a, b) and the colloidal grain two (c, d). The inset in panel (c) presents a magnified view of the region around the Bragg peak shown by the white square.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, c) Experiment (Media 2) and (b, d) simulations (Media 3). (a, b) A 3D representation of the measured (a) and simulated (b) scattered intensity showing three orthogonal planes and an isosurface. The length of the arrows corresponds to 30 μm−1. (c, d) An isosurface of measured (c) and simulated (d) scattered intensities around a 220 Bragg peak. The length of the arrows corresponds to 2.5 μm−1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The (qx - qy) cut in reciprocal space showing the distribution of the scattered intensity on a logarithmic scale from the model colloidal sample presented in the inset (Media 4), the white ring corresponds to the data used for the reconstruction. (b) An isosurface of the reconstructed object, the length of the arrows corresponds to 2 μm. (c, d) Two orthogonal cuts through the reconstructed object. The stacking fault, indicated by the arrows, is clearly seen in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The (qx - qy) cut in reciprocal space obtained from simulated 2D diffraction patterns with one degree increment. The missing region covers the central speckle and two first fringes. (inset) A slice through 3D scattered intensity around a 220 Bragg peak. (b) An isosurface of the reconstructed object (Media 5), the length of the arrows corresponds to 2 μm. (c, d) Two orthogonal cuts through the reconstructed object (Media 5). The arrows in (c) point to the defect in the colloidal grain.

Equations (1)

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ρ(r)= n=1 N j=1 s ρ nj (r R n r j ) ,

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