Abstract

Thermally induced waveguide changes become significant for very large mode area fibers. This results in a reduction of the mode-field diameter, but simultaneously in an improvement of the beam quality. In this work the first systematic experimental characterization of the reduction of the mode-field diameter in various fibers during high-power operation is carried out. It is shown that the reduction of the mode-field diameter shows a characteristic behavior that scales with the core size but that is independent of the particular fiber design. Furthermore, the strength of the actual index change is experimentally estimated, and its use to overcome avoided crossings is discussed and experimentally demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. M. E. Fermann, “Single-mode excitation of multimode fibers with ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 52–54 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. S. Wong, X. Peng, J. M. McLaughlin, and L. Dong, “Breaking the limit of maximum effective area for robust single-mode propagation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2855–2857 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Arkwright, P. Elango, G. R. Atkins, T. Whitbread, and M. J. F. Digonnet, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the resonant nonlinearity in Ytterbium-Doped fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 798–806 (1998).
  14. A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly Induced Refractive Index Changes in Yb-Doped Fibers: The Origin, Properties and Application for all-fiber Coherent Beam Combining,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 209–234.
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).
  16. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Tech. Rep. arXiv:0805.0091 (2008).
  19. J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally Coupled Core Fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for Effectively Single-Mode Core Size Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO (2007), paper CTuBB3, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4452926&isnumber=4452320 .
  24. J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, and K. Koch, “Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1485–1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, and M. E. Fermann, “Extending Effective Area of Fundamental Mode in Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1565–1570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, and M. E. Fermann, “Extending Effective Area of Fundamental Mode in Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1565–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2005

2004

2001

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Allan, D.

Arkwright, J. W.

Atkins, G. R.

Barty, C. P. J.

Baumgartl, M.

Beach, R. J.

Borrelli, N.

Broeng, J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carstens, H.

Coscelli, E.

Cucinotta, A.

Dawson, J. W.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dong, L.

Eberhardt, R.

Eidam, T.

Elango, P.

Ermeneux, S.

Fermann, M. E.

Fevrier, S.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Fu, L.

Hädrich, S.

Hansen, K. R.

Heebner, J. E.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Koch, K.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laurila, M.

Leick, L.

Li, J.

Likhachev, M. E.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Mattsson, K. E.

Mckay, H. A.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Messerly, M. J.

Otto, H.-J.

Passaro, D.

Pax, P. H.

Peng, X.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, T.

Poli, F.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Salin, F.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Scolari, L.

Selleri, S.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, C.

Smith, J. J.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steinmetz, A.

Stutzki, F.

Thomas, B. K.

Tünnermann, A.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J.

Whitbread, T.

Wirth, C.

Wong, W. S.

Yvernault, P.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, and K. Koch, “Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1485–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Other

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Tech. Rep. arXiv:0805.0091 (2008).

A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly Induced Refractive Index Changes in Yb-Doped Fibers: The Origin, Properties and Application for all-fiber Coherent Beam Combining,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 209–234.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally Coupled Core Fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for Effectively Single-Mode Core Size Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO (2007), paper CTuBB3, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4452926&isnumber=4452320 .

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM micrograph of a double-clad LPF with a rare-earth doped (green) core (LPF30).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of the measured output beam mode profile of the LPF30 with increasing extracted average output power. Additionally, the approximate mode-field diameter is given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured mode-field diameter vs. extracted average output power for the FUT.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Approximate MFD shrinking (slope of the linear regression in Fig. 3) vs. passive MFD (intercept of linear regression in Fig. 3) for all linearly fitted FUT. Note that the MFD shrinking refers to the MFD at the fiber end facet.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical simulation of the index depression Δn at which a FM avoided crossing (AX) is strongest versus the hole-to-hole-distance Λ for a LPF with a constant relative hole size of d/Λ = 0.22.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured near field intensity profiles at the fiber end facet for a) LPF45 and b) LPF60 with increasing extracted average output powers. The mode-field diameter has been calculated with an aperture around the core area to exclude the ring-like features.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured extracted average output power vs. pump power of the main amplifier with LPF60 at 2 W seed power. Additionally, measured near field images of the fiber end facet are displayed for different output power levels.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Geometric Parameters of all FUT. In the 200/40 the Core is Formed by 7 Missing Holes and in the 285/100 by 19 Missing Holes. The LPFs Posses a Core Formed by One Missing Hole

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fundamental Mode Properties of all FUT. Note that MFD100W/m Refers to the MFD at 100 W/m of Extracted Output Power. All MFDs are Measured at the Fiber End Facet where the Thermal Load is Largest

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A eff = ( I(x,y)dxdy ) 2 I (x,y) 2 dxdy
MFD2 A eff π

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