Abstract

Thermally induced waveguide changes become significant for very large mode area fibers. This results in a reduction of the mode-field diameter, but simultaneously in an improvement of the beam quality. In this work the first systematic experimental characterization of the reduction of the mode-field diameter in various fibers during high-power operation is carried out. It is shown that the reduction of the mode-field diameter shows a characteristic behavior that scales with the core size but that is independent of the particular fiber design. Furthermore, the strength of the actual index change is experimentally estimated, and its use to overcome avoided crossings is discussed and experimentally demonstrated.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. M. E. Fermann, “Single-mode excitation of multimode fibers with ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(1), 52–54 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. W. Arkwright, P. Elango, G. R. Atkins, T. Whitbread, and M. J. F. Digonnet, “Experimental and theoretical analysis of the resonant nonlinearity in Ytterbium-Doped fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 798–806 (1998).
  14. A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly Induced Refractive Index Changes in Yb-Doped Fibers: The Origin, Properties and Application for all-fiber Coherent Beam Combining,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 209–234.
  15. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).
  16. F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Tech. Rep. arXiv:0805.0091 (2008).
  19. J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally Coupled Core Fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for Effectively Single-Mode Core Size Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO (2007), paper CTuBB3, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4452926&isnumber=4452320 .
  24. J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, and K. Koch, “Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1485–1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, and M. E. Fermann, “Extending Effective Area of Fundamental Mode in Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1565–1570 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (10)

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, and M. E. Fermann, “Extending Effective Area of Fundamental Mode in Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(11), 1565–1570 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Allan, D.

Arkwright, J. W.

Atkins, G. R.

Barty, C. P. J.

Baumgartl, M.

Beach, R. J.

Borrelli, N.

Broeng, J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carstens, H.

Coscelli, E.

Cucinotta, A.

Dawson, J. W.

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

Dong, L.

Eberhardt, R.

Eidam, T.

Elango, P.

Ermeneux, S.

Fermann, M. E.

Fevrier, S.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

Fu, L.

Hädrich, S.

Hansen, K. R.

Heebner, J. E.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Koch, K.

Lægsgaard, J.

Laurila, M.

Leick, L.

Li, J.

Likhachev, M. E.

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Mattsson, K. E.

Mckay, H. A.

McLaughlin, J. M.

Messerly, M. J.

Otto, H.-J.

Passaro, D.

Pax, P. H.

Peng, X.

Pertsch, T.

Peschel, T.

Poli, F.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

Salin, F.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Scolari, L.

Selleri, S.

Shverdin, M. Y.

Siders, C. W.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, C.

Smith, J. J.

Sridharan, A. K.

Stappaerts, E. A.

Steinmetz, A.

Stutzki, F.

Thomas, B. K.

Tünnermann, A.

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, A. Steinmetz, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “High average power large-pitch fiber amplifier with robust single-mode operation,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 689–691 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J.

Whitbread, T.

Wirth, C.

Wong, W. S.

Yvernault, P.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, Stress, and Thermo-Optic Effects in High Average Power Double-Clad Silica Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Dianov, M. E. Likhachev, and S. Fevrier, “Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for High-Power Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 20–29 (2009), http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4773297&isnumber=4773293 .
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (15)

K. E. Mattsson, “Low photo darkening single mode RMO fiber,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17855–17861 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express 18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, S. Hädrich, H. Carstens, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber chirped-pulse amplification system emitting 3.8 GW peak power,” Opt. Express 19(1), 255–260 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-Mode ytterbium-doped Large-Mode-Area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Poli, E. Coscelli, T. T. Alkeskjold, D. Passaro, A. Cucinotta, L. Leick, J. Broeng, and S. Selleri, “Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9896–9907 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Avoided crossings in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13578–13589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Fini, “Large mode area fibers with asymmetric bend compensation,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21866–21873 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Thermo-optical effects in high-power ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23965–23980 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. West, C. Smith, N. Borrelli, D. Allan, and K. Koch, “Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1485–1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, S. Ermeneux, P. Yvernault, and F. Salin, “Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2715–2720 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hädrich, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, J. Limpert, T. Peschel, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical behavior of rare-earth-doped low-NA fibers in high power operation,” Opt. Express 14(13), 6091–6097 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Dawson, M. J. Messerly, R. J. Beach, M. Y. Shverdin, E. A. Stappaerts, A. K. Sridharan, P. H. Pax, J. E. Heebner, C. W. Siders, and C. P. J. Barty, “Analysis of the scalability of diffraction-limited fiber lasers and amplifiers to high average power,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13240–13266 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

A. A. Fotiadi, O. L. Antipov, and P. Megret, “Resonantly Induced Refractive Index Changes in Yb-Doped Fibers: The Origin, Properties and Application for all-fiber Coherent Beam Combining,” in Frontiers in Guided Wave Optics and Optoelectronics, B. Pal, ed. (Intech, 2010), pp. 209–234.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2007).

D. B. Leviton and B. J. Frey, “Temperature-dependent absolute refractive index measurements of synthetic fused silica,” Tech. Rep. arXiv:0805.0091 (2008).

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally Coupled Core Fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for Effectively Single-Mode Core Size Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO (2007), paper CTuBB3, http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=4452926&isnumber=4452320 .

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