Abstract

Eye accommodation is considered to function properly for three-dimensional (3D) images generated by holography. We developed a horizontally scanning holographic display technique that enlarges both the screen size and viewing zone angle. A 3D image generated by this technique can be easily seen by both eyes. In this study, we measured the accommodation responses to a 3D image generated by the horizontally scanning holographic display technique that has a horizontal viewing zone angle of 14.6° and screen size of 4.3 in. We found that the accommodation responses to a 3D image displayed within 400 mm from the display screen were similar to those of a real object.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (3)

2010 (5)

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12372–12386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Häussler, A. Schwerdtner, and N. Leister, “Large holographic displays as an alternative to stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030M, 68030M-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takaki and Y. Hayashi, “Increased horizontal viewing zone angle of a hologram by resolution redistribution of a spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 47(19), D6–D11 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, and M. Lucente, “Synthetic aperture hologram: a novel approach to three-dimensional display,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9(11), 1969–1977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

J. Semmlow and D. Heerema, “The synkinetic interaction of convergence accommodation and accommodative convergence,” Vision Res. 19(11), 1237–1242 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

1949 (1)

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by recorded wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 197(1051), 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Bablumian, A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bannister, R. W.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benton, S. A.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, and M. Lucente, “Synthetic aperture hologram: a novel approach to three-dimensional display,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9(11), 1969–1977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Cameron, C. D.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coomber, S. D.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cresswell, I. G.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Ridder, H.

W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flores, D.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Fukaya, N.

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by recorded wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 197(1051), 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Gu, T.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Hahn, J.

Häussler, R.

R. Häussler, A. Schwerdtner, and N. Leister, “Large holographic displays as an alternative to stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030M, 68030M-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, Y.

Heerema, D.

J. Semmlow and D. Heerema, “The synkinetic interaction of convergence accommodation and accommodative convergence,” Vision Res. 19(11), 1237–1242 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honda, T.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hong, K.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-Y.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, J. R.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hui, V.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.-M.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IJsselsteijn, W. A.

W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P. O.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, M. L.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kang, H.

Kathaperumal, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kollin, J.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12372–12386 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leister, N.

R. Häussler, A. Schwerdtner, and N. Leister, “Large holographic displays as an alternative to stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030M, 68030M-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Li, G.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Lim, Y.

Lin, W.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Lucente, M.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, and M. Lucente, “Synthetic aperture hologram: a novel approach to three-dimensional display,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9(11), 1969–1977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Maeno, K.

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Milham, K. A.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. J.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nago, N.

Nakamura, J.

Nishikawa, O.

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Okada, N.

Onural, L.

Park, G.

Payne, D. A.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Quarrel, J.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rachwal, B.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rokutanda, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Sato, K.

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Scattergood, D. C.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwerdtner, A.

R. Häussler, A. Schwerdtner, and N. Leister, “Large holographic displays as an alternative to stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030M, 68030M-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Semmlow, J.

J. Semmlow and D. Heerema, “The synkinetic interaction of convergence accommodation and accommodative convergence,” Vision Res. 19(11), 1237–1242 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, O.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slinger, C. W.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. P.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. G.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. G.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

St Hilaire, P.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

St. Hilaire, P.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, and M. Lucente, “Synthetic aperture hologram: a novel approach to three-dimensional display,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9(11), 1969–1977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, M.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

Tanaka, K.

Tanemoto, Y.

Tay, S.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Thomas, J.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Tipton, D. L.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tunç, A. V.

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Underkoffler, J.

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Upatnieks, J.

Vliegen, J.

W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Voorakaranam, R.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Wang, P.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Watson, P. J.

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webber, P. J.

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

Yang, H. K.

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yaras, F.

Yokouchi, M.

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

E. N. Leith and J. Upatnieks, “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52(10), 1123–1130 (1962).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, and M. Lucente, “Synthetic aperture hologram: a novel approach to three-dimensional display,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 9(11), 1969–1977 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. Tay, P.-A. Blanche, R. Voorakaranam, A. V. Tunç, W. Lin, S. Rokutanda, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, G. Li, P. St Hilaire, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “An updatable holographic three-dimensional,” Nature 451, 694–698 (2008).

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, and N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

D. Gabor, “Microscopy by recorded wavefronts,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 197(1051), 454–487 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (7)

C. W. Slinger, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, A. P. Smith, M. G. Smith, M. Stanley, and P. J. Watson, “Recent developments in computer-generated holography: toward a practical electroholography system for interactive 3D visualization,” Proc. SPIE 5290, 27–41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Maeno, N. Fukaya, O. Nishikawa, K. Sato, and T. Honda, “Electro-holographic display using 15 mega pixels LCD,” Proc. SPIE 2652, 15–23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kim, K. Hong, J. Kim, H. K. Yang, J.-M. Hwang, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response measurement according to angular resolution density in three-dimensional display,” Proc. SPIE 7956, 79560Q, 79560Q-7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, “Electronic display system for computational holography,” Proc. SPIE 1212, 174–182 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, “Hologram-like video images by 45-view stereoscopic display,” Proc. SPIE 3012, 154–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, and J. Vliegen, “Effects of stereoscopic filming parameters and display duration on the subjective assessment of eye strain,” Proc. SPIE 3957, 12–22 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Häussler, A. Schwerdtner, and N. Leister, “Large holographic displays as an alternative to stereoscopic displays,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030M, 68030M-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

SPIE (1)

M. Stanley, R. W. Bannister, C. D. Cameron, S. D. Coomber, I. G. Cresswell, J. R. Hughes, V. Hui, P. O. Jackson, K. A. Milham, R. J. Miller, D. A. Payne, J. Quarrel, D. C. Scattergood, A. P. Smith, M. A. G. Smith, D. L. Tipton, P. J. Watson, P. J. Webber, and C. W. Slinger, “100-megapixel computer-generated holographic images from Active Tiling: a dynamic and scalable electro-optic modulator system,” SPIE 5005, 247–258 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (1)

J. Semmlow and D. Heerema, “The synkinetic interaction of convergence accommodation and accommodative convergence,” Vision Res. 19(11), 1237–1242 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. Schwerdtner, N. Leister, and R. Häussler, “A new approach to electro-holography for TV and projection displays,” in SID 2007 International Symposium, Digest of Technical Papers, 1224–1227 (2007).

L. Lipton, “Foundations of the stereoscopic cinema,” available for download from http://3d.curtin.edu.au/library/foundation.cfm , 1982, pp. 100–102.

Y. Kim, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Accommodation response in viewing integral imaging,” in Proceedings of Society for Information Display 2010 International Symposium (SID 2010), (Seattle, Washington, 2010), pp. 530–532.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Three-dimensional image generation based on (a) wavefront reconstruction and (b) ray reconstruction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Horizontally scanning holographic display.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two cases considering blur on retina: (a) the beam width just in front of the pupil is larger than the pupil diameter (zozc), and (b) otherwise (zozc).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Horizontally scanning holographic display system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Test image used for accommodation measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured accommodation responses to a holographic image: (a) Y. U., (b) Y. S., (c) M. Y., (d) Y. T., and (e) M. M.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured accommodation responses to a real object: (a) Y. U., (b) Y. S., (c) M. Y., (d) Y. T., and (e) M. M.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparisons of accommodation responses to holographic images and real objects: (a) Y. U., (b) Y. S., (c) M. Y., (d) Y. T., and (e) M. M.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Test images captured by cooled CCD camera located at the left eye position of subjects; test images were displayed at depths zo = 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm, and the focus of the camera was changed from a depth of z = 50 mm to 300 mm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Test images captured by cooled CCD camera located at the left eye position of subjects; test images were displayed at depths of zo = 200 mm, 300 mm, and 400 mm, and the focus of the camera was changed from a depth of z = 50 mm to 550 mm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Test images captured by cooled CCD camera located at the left eye position of subjects; test images were displayed at depths zo = 500 mm and 550 mm, and the focus of the camera was changed from a depth of z = 300 mm to 550 mm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δ f =| z z o |d l e /( lzo )( lz ).
δ d ={ 1.22λ l e /d ( z o z c ), 1.22λ l e /( l/ z o 1 )u ( z o z c ).
δ s =mq l e /( lz ).
δ scan = δ f + δ d + δ s .
d δ scan dz ={ (dmq) l e / ( lz ) 2 ( z z o ), (d+mq) l e / ( lz ) 2 ( z z o ).

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