Abstract

A depressed cladding waveguide with record low loss of 0.12 dB/cm is inscribed in YAG:Nd(0.3at.%) crystal by femtosecond laser pulses with an elliptical beam waist. The waveguide is formed by a set of parallel tracks which constitute the depressed cladding. It is a key element for compact and efficient CW waveguide laser operating at 1064 nm and pumped by a multimode laser diode. Special attention is paid to mechanical stress resulting from the inscription process. Numerical calculation of mode distribution and propagation loss with the elasto-optical effect taken into account leads to the conclusion that the depressed cladding is a dominating factor in waveguide mode formation, while the mechanical stress only slightly distorts waveguide modes.

© 2012 OSA

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References

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Streltsov, “Femtosecond-laser writing of tracks with depressed refractive index in crystals,” Proc. SPIE 4941, 51–57 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Siebenmorgen, T. Calmano, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Highly efficient Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser written with a femtosecond-laser,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16035–16041 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Okhrimchuk, “Femtosecond fabrication of waveguides in ion-doped laser crystals,” in Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission, F. J. Duarte, ed., (InTech, 2010), pp. 519–542. http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/femtosecond-fabrication-of-waveguides-in-ion-doped-laser-crystals .
  11. D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys. 19(7), 1415–1422 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3881–3883 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).
  15. R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(13), 5149–5153 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

A. V. Streltsov, “Femtosecond-laser writing of tracks with depressed refractive index in crystals,” Proc. SPIE 4941, 51–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1967 (1)

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(13), 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

Ancona, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

Burghoff, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chiodo, N.

Chong, T. C.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Della Valle, G.

Dixon, R. W.

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(13), 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Dubov, M.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys. 19(7), 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fuerbach, A.

Glatzel, U.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorelik, T.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

Gui, L.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Huber, G.

Jacinto, C.

Jaque, D.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, F.

Kaminskii, A. A.

Khrushchev, I.

Killi, A.

Kopf, D.

Kuan, K.

Kurkov, A. S.

Lamela, J.

Lancaster, D. G.

Laporta, P.

Lederer, M.

Mezentsev, V. K.

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Monro, T. M.

Morgner, U.

Nolte, S.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

Osellame, R.

Petermann, K.

Rodenas, A.

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmitz, H.

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys. 19(7), 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

Sholokhov, E. M.

Siebenmorgen, J.

Silva, W. F.

Streltsov, A. V.

A. V. Streltsov, “Femtosecond-laser writing of tracks with depressed refractive index in crystals,” Proc. SPIE 4941, 51–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Svelto, O.

Taccheo, S.

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torchia, G. A.

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tuennermann, A.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Turitsyn, S. K.

Vázquez de Aldana, J. R.

Will, M.

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Xu, B.

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. A. Torchia, A. Rodenas, A. Benayas, E. Cantelar, L. Roso, and D. Jaque, “Highly efficient laser action in femtosecond-written Nd:yttrium aluminium garnet ceramic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(11), 111103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Heinrich, J. Burghoff, S. Nolte, A. Ancona, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond laser-written quasi-phase-matched waveguides in lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(15), 151108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

T. Gorelik, M. Will, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and U. Glatzel, “Transmission electron microscopy studies of femtosecond laser induced modifications in quartz,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 309–311 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Gui, B. Xu, and T. C. Chong, “Microstructure in lithium niobate by use of focused femtosecond laser pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1337–1339 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. W. Dixon, “Photoelastic properties of selected materials and their relevance for applications to acoustic light modulators and scanners,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(13), 5149–5153 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. (1)

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, H. Schmitz, M. Dubov, and I. Bennion, “Cascaded nonlinear absorption of femtosecond laser pulses in dielectrics,” Laser Phys. 19(7), 1415–1422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (6)

D. G. Lancaster, S. Gross, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Kuan, T. M. Monro, M. Ams, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Fifty percent internal slope efficiency femtosecond direct-written Tm³⁺:ZBLAN waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(9), 1587–1589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Taccheo, G. Della Valle, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, N. Chiodo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Er:Yb-doped waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2626–2628 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev, and J. Mitchell, “Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG:Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Lett. 30(17), 2248–2250 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Okhrimchuk, V. K. Mezentsev, V. V. Dvoyrin, A. S. Kurkov, E. M. Sholokhov, S. K. Turitsyn, A. V. Shestakov, and I. Bennion, “Waveguide-saturable absorber fabricated by femtosecond pulses in YAG:Cr4+ crystal for Q-switched operation of Yb-fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3881–3883 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Benayas, W. F. Silva, C. Jacinto, E. Cantelar, J. Lamela, F. Jaque, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, G. A. Torchia, L. Roso, A. A. Kaminskii, and D. Jaque, “Thermally resistant waveguides fabricated in Nd:YAG ceramics by crossing femtosecond damage filaments,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 330–332 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. V. Streltsov, “Femtosecond-laser writing of tracks with depressed refractive index in crystals,” Proc. SPIE 4941, 51–57 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Okhrimchuk, “Femtosecond fabrication of waveguides in ion-doped laser crystals,” in Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission, F. J. Duarte, ed., (InTech, 2010), pp. 519–542. http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/femtosecond-fabrication-of-waveguides-in-ion-doped-laser-crystals .

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman & Hall, 1983).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Negative permanent refractive index change in Nd(0.3%at.):YAG crystal at the wavelength of 600 nm (squares) and transverse size of a track along inscribing beam (circles) versus energy in femtosecond inscription with 110 fs pulse at wavelength of 800 nm and repetition rate of 1 kHz. Scan velocity V = 0.5 mm/s. Polarization of femtosecond pulses is parallel to the translation direction. Laser beam is focused at 63 µm below the crystal surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scheme of a waveguide consisting of 66 tracks. End view. Waveguide sizes: A = 116 µm, B = 110 µm, depth of waveguide center h = 120 µm. The red arrow indicates the propagation direction of inscribing beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pump light propagation loss measurements. (a) Pump light is coupled through lenses. (b) Butt-coupling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependences of output CW oscillation power upon input pump power for waveguide No.2 with different output couplers. Pump scheme is shown in Fig. 3(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Findlay-Clay analysis for waveguide laser No.2 with external mirrors. Dependency of pump power at the threshold upon output loss. Solid line is a linear approximation made for region of low output coupling.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Near field images of output waveguide laser light. Thin solid line designates inner elliptical boundary of the cladding with vertical A and horizontal B diameters of 116 and 110 µm correspondingly (Fig. 2). Pump is coupled through lenses; and cavity is comprised by external mirrors. Transmittance of output coupler Toc = 0.66%. (a) Pump power is slightly above threshold Ppump = 28 mW. (b) Pump power is strongly above threshold: Ppump = 551 mW.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of vertical (black square) and horizontal (red circles) oscillation field diameters (at the level of 1/e2 of intensity) in dependency upon input pump power for Waveguide #2 and output coupler with transmittance TOC = 0.66%. Cross-section distribution of oscillation intensity was analyzed by D4-sigma method

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

End microscopic views of the Waveguide #2 for sample placed between crossed polarizers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Distribution of refractive index change inside waveguide core induced by compressive stress inside cladding tracks along two orthogonal axes of symmetry as seen in Fig. 2. Black solid line is for horizontal “x” polarization, and red solid line is for vertical “y” polarization. σav = −0.5 GPa.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated dependences of waveguide propagation loss upon averaged stress inside tracks for fundamental modes of horizontal (red up-triangle) and vertical (black down–triangle) polarizations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Inscription Parameters and Attenuation Coefficients of Pump Light for 11.4 mm Waveguides

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P c P on =exp( 8 ( π r 0 nθ λ 0 ) 2 ),
n x = n YAG ( 10.5 n YAG 2 ( p 11 u xx + p 12 u yy ) ) n y = n YAG ( 10.5 n YAG 2 ( p 11 u yy + p 12 u xx ) ), n xy = n yx =0.5 n YAG 3 p 44 u xy

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