Abstract

Single 32.6 eV high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator were compressed down to 11 ± 3 fs by completely compensating for the pulse-front tilt. The photon flux was intensified up to 5.7×109 photons/s on target by implementing high harmonic generation under a phase matching condition in a hollow fiber used for increasing the interaction length. The output photon flux on target from the monochromator was comparable to that from a small synchrotron facility, while the pulse duration was more than three orders of magnitude shorter. This high harmonic beam line fulfills two requirements for time-resolved spectroscopy in extreme ultraviolet region, namely, ultrashort pulses and high photon flux.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

M. Ito, Y. Kataoka, T. Okamoto, M. Yamashita, and T. Sekikawa, “Spatiotemporal characterization of single-order high harmonic pulses from time-compensated toroidal-grating monochromator,” Opt. Express 18(6), 6071–6078 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-6071 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto and F. Frassetto, “Time-preserving grating monochromators for ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Opt. 49(28), 5465–5473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. L. Dakovski, Y. Li, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Tunable ultrafast extreme ultraviolet source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 073108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(12), 123109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, “Tolerances of time-delay-compensated monochromators for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Opt. 48(23), 4526–4535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2897–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Sekikawa, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Femtosecond Lattice Relaxation Induced by Inner-Shell Excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8), 1941–1945 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 4041 (1999).

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 6040–6049 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

Bierbaum, V. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bryan, W. A.

Cacho, C.

Calegari, F.

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(12), 123109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, A. H.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chini, M.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dakovski, G. L.

G. L. Dakovski, Y. Li, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Tunable ultrafast extreme ultraviolet source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 073108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorrer, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durakiewicz, T.

G. L. Dakovski, Y. Li, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Tunable ultrafast extreme ultraviolet source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 073108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, W.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, F.

Frassetto, F.

Froud, C. A.

Furukawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garzella, D.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gaudin, J.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glover, T. E.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godehusen, K.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, E. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haight, R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, E.

He, F.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ito, M.

Itoh, M.

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabachnik, N. M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kataoka, Y.

Kleineberg, U.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Blanc, C.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leone, S. R.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

G. L. Dakovski, Y. Li, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Tunable ultrafast extreme ultraviolet source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 073108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lock, R.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucchini, M.

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(12), 123109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mével, E.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 4041 (1999).

Mulhisen, A. M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Femtosecond Lattice Relaxation Induced by Inner-Shell Excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8), 1941–1945 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 4041 (1999).

Nakajima, T.

Nisoli, M.

Nugent-Glandorf, L.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obara, M.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 4041 (1999).

Odelius, M.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

Patchkovskii, S.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peale, D. R.

R. Haight and D. R. Peale, “Tunable photoemission with harmonics of subpicosecond lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65(6), 1853–1857 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poletto, L.

F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C. A. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W. A. Bryan, E. Springate, and L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19169–19181 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-19169 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto and F. Frassetto, “Time-preserving grating monochromators for ultrafast extreme-ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Opt. 49(28), 5465–5473 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(12), 123109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, “Tolerances of time-delay-compensated monochromators for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Appl. Opt. 48(23), 4526–4535 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6652–6667 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6652 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator: erratum,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 140–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2897–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

G. L. Dakovski, Y. Li, T. Durakiewicz, and G. Rodriguez, “Tunable ultrafast extreme ultraviolet source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(7), 073108 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft X-rays,” Science 280(5368), 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

E. Constant, D. Garzella, P. Breger, E. Mével, C. Dorrer, C. Le Blanc, F. Salin, and P. Agostini, “Optimizing high harmonic generation in absorbing gases: model and experiment,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(8), 1668–1671 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Samuels, D. A.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Scheer, M.

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “A laser-based instrument for the study of ultrafast chemical dynamics by soft x-ray-probe photoelectron spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1875–1886 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Nugent-Glandorf, M. Scheer, D. A. Samuels, A. M. Mulhisen, E. R. Grant, X. Yang, V. M. Bierbaum, and S. R. Leone, “Ultrafast time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of dissociating Br2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(19), 193002 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenlein, R. W.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarzkopf, O.

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

Shank, C. V.

T. E. Glover, R. W. Schoenlein, A. H. Chin, and C. V. Shank, “Observation of laser assisted photoelectric effect and femtosecond high order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2468–2471 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, T.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Springate, E.

Stagira, S.

Stolow, A.

W. Li, X. Zhou, R. Lock, S. Patchkovskii, A. Stolow, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Time-resolved dynamics in N2O4 probed using high harmonic generation,” Science 322(5905), 1207–1211 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, E. J.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, Y. Furukawa, E. J. Takahashi, and K. Midorikawa, “Interferometry of attosecond pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(21), 213904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamaki, Y.

Y. Tamaki, Y. Nagata, M. Obara, and K. Midorikawa, “Phase-matched high-order-harmonic generation in a gas-filled hollow fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 4041 (1999).

Thumm, U.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turcu, I. C. E.

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

F. Frassetto, C. Cacho, C. A. Froud, I. C. E. Turcu, P. Villoresi, W. A. Bryan, E. Springate, and L. Poletto, “Single-grating monochromator for extreme-ultraviolet ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19169–19181 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-20-19169 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, F. Frassetto, F. Calegari, F. Ferrari, M. Lucchini, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Time-delay compensated monochromator for the spectral selection of extreme-ultraviolet high-order laser harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(12), 123109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Frassetto, P. Villoresi, and L. Poletto, “Optical concept of a compressor for XUV pulses in the attosecond domain,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6652–6667 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6652 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator: erratum,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 140–140 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, S. Stagira, G. Sansone, and M. Nisoli, “Intense femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2897–2899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, “Compensation of optical path lengths in extreme-ultraviolet and soft-x-ray monochromators for ultrafast pulses,” Appl. Opt. 38(28), 6040–6049 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,” Nature 446(7136), 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, and S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432(7017), 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shimizu, T. Sekikawa, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and M. Itoh, “Time-resolved Auger decay in CsBr using high harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 017401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sekikawa, T. Yamazaki, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, “Femtosecond Lattice Relaxation Induced by Inner-Shell Excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(8), 1941–1945 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wernet, P.

P. Wernet, “Electronic structure in real time: mapping valence electron rearrangements during chemical reactions,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13(38), 16941–16954 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wernet, M. Odelius, K. Godehusen, J. Gaudin, O. Schwarzkopf, and W. Eberhardt, “Real-time evolution of the valence electronic structure in a dissociating molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(1), 013001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Wang, M. Chini, S. Chen, C.-H. Zhang, F. He, Y. Cheng, Y. Wu, U. Thumm, and Z. Chang, “Attosecond time-resolved autoionization of argon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(14), 143002 (2010).
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Yakovlev, V.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the time-delay compensated monochromator with toroidal gratings, including the experimental setup for high harmonic generation and temporal characterization by cross-correlation. The slit position was moved in the Fourier plane for pulse compression.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulse stretch as a function of the slit position, determining the incident angle to the second grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-correlation between the 21st harmonic and fundamental pulses at slit positions of (a) 0 mm and (b) 3 mm. The solid lines are the results of fitting to Gaussian functions. (c) Pulse duration of the 21st harmonic pulse as a function of slit position. The solid line is the numerically calculated pulse stretch shifted by the measured shortest pulse duration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(1- Nion)2Jk) as a function of gas pressure, where Jk) and Nion are the phase mismatch factor and the degree of ionization, respectively. The solid, broken, and dashed-dotted lines correspond to the cases for Nion = 0.05, 0.06, and 0.07, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pressure dependence of the intensity of the 21st harmonic at a fiber length of (a) 2 cm and (b) 1 cm, represented by solid circles. The solid lines correspond to (1 - Nion)2J(Δk). See the text for details.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Photon Numbers at the Focus Point of the Time-delay Compensated Monochromator

Equations (5)

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Δk=Δ k atom +Δ k ion +Δ k NL +Δ k fiber ,
Δ k atom +Δ k NL =qp( 1η ) 2π λ 0 ( Δδ+ n 2 ),
Δ k ion =qpη N a r e λ 0 ,
Δ k fiber =q u 11 2 λ 0 4π a 2 ,
J( Δk )= 1+exp( αL )2cos( ΔkL )exp( αL/2 ) ( α/2 ) 2 + ( Δk ) 2 ,

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