Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a scheme for strong radial confinement of a single 87Rb atom by a bichromatic far-off resonance optical dipole trap (BFORT). The BFORT is composed of a blue-detuned Laguerre-Gaussian LG01 beam and a red-detuned Gaussian beam. The atomic oscillation frequency measurement shows that the effective trapping dimension is much sharper than that from a diffraction-limited microscopic objective. Theory shows that the added scattering rate due to imposing blue-detuned light is negligible when the temperature of the single atoms is close to ground state temperature. By carrying out sub-Doppler cooling, the mean energy of single atoms trapped in the BFORT is reduced to 15 ± 1 μK. The corresponding mean quantum number of radial vibration n is about 1.65, which satisfies the Lamb-Dicke regime. We conclude that the BFORT is a suitable Lamb-Dicke trap for further cooling a single neutral atom down to the ground state and for further application in quantum information processing.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. He, P. Xu, J. Wang, and M. S. Zhan, “Rotating single atoms in a ring lattice generated by a spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express 17, 21007–21014 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

M. Weber, J. Volz, and K. Saucke, “Analysis of a single-atom dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99–151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemuller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. A. Savard, K. M. OHara, and J. E. Thomas, “Laser-noise-induced heating in far-off resonance optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095–R1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Alt, W.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armellin, C.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beugnon, J.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brennen, G. K.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Briegel, H.-J.

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Browaeys, A.

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabrillo, C.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Caves, C. M.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. M.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chupp, T. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cirac, J. I.

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cline, R. A.

Corwin, K. L.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99–151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, I. H.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dotsenko, I.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eschner, J.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forster, L.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Föster, L.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fournet, P.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frese, D.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, N.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99–151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gaetan, A.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Fernandez, P.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gardiner, C. W.

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, V.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, P.

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, R.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemuller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, X. D.

Heinzen, D. J.

Itano, W. M.

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaksch, D.

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jefferts, S. R.

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jessen, P. S.

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. P. A.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A.

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99–151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karski, M.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khudaverdyan, M.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, B. E.

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhr, S.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuppens, S. J. M.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamare, M.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lance, A. M.

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998).

Leibfried, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998).

Marion, H.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, M. R.

Meekhof, D. M.

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercier, R.

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meschede, D.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messin, G.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. D.

Miller, K. W.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnychenko, Y.

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mundt, A.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

OHara, K. M.

T. A. Savard, K. M. OHara, and J. E. Thomas, “Laser-noise-induced heating in far-off resonance optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095–R1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ovchinnikov, Y. B.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemuller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Protsenko, I.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbeutel, A.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reymond, G.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Roos, C. F.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saucke, K.

M. Weber, J. Volz, and K. Saucke, “Analysis of a single-atom dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savard, T. A.

T. A. Savard, K. M. OHara, and J. E. Thomas, “Laser-noise-induced heating in far-off resonance optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095–R1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlosser, N.

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schrader, D.

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sortais, Y. R. P.

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steffen, A.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

T. A. Savard, K. M. OHara, and J. E. Thomas, “Laser-noise-induced heating in far-off resonance optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095–R1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tuchendler, C.

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ueberholz, B.

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volz, J.

M. Weber, J. Volz, and K. Saucke, “Analysis of a single-atom dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Weber, M.

M. Weber, J. Volz, and K. Saucke, “Analysis of a single-atom dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weidemuller, M.

R. Grimm, M. Weidemuller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Widera, A.

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, P.

Zhan, M. S.

Zoller, P.

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (2)

N. Friedman, A. Kaplan, and N. Davidson, “Dark optical traps for cold atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 48, 99–151 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Grimm, M. Weidemuller, and Y. B. Ovchinnikov, “Optical dipole traps for neutral atoms,” Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42, 95–170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Beugnon, C. Tuchendler, H. Marion, A. Gaetan, Y. Miroshnychenko, Y. R. P. Sortais, A. M. Lance, M. P. A. Jones, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Two-dimensional transport and transfer of a single atomic qubit in optical tweezers,” Nat. Phys. 3, 696–699 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

N. Schlosser, G. Reymond, I. Protsenko, and P. Grangier, “Sub-poissonian loading of single atoms in a microscopic dipole trap,” Nature (London) 411, 1024–1027 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Miroshnychenko, W. Alt, I. Dotsenko, L. Forster, M. Khudaverdyan, D. Meschede, D. Schrader, and A. Rauschenbeutel, “Quantum engineering: An atom-sorting machine,” Nature (London) 442, 151 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (6)

C. Cabrillo, J. I. Cirac, P. Garcia-Fernandez, and P. Zoller, “Creation of entangled states of distant atoms by interference,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1025–1033 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Weber, J. Volz, and K. Saucke, “Analysis of a single-atom dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 043406 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. R. P. Sortais, H. Marion, C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, M. Lamare, P. Fournet, C. Armellin, R. Mercier, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, “Diffraction-limited optics for single-atom manipulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 013406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Tuchendler, A. M. Lance, A. Browaeys, Y. R. P. Sortais, and P. Grangier, “Energy distribution and cooling of a single atom in an optical tweezer,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 033425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Savard, K. M. OHara, and J. E. Thomas, “Laser-noise-induced heating in far-off resonance optical traps,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1095–R1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. M. Kuppens, K. L. Corwin, K. W. Miller, T. E. Chupp, and C. E. Wieman, “Loading an optical dipole trap,” Phys. Rev. A 62, 013406 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

D. Frese, B. Ueberholz, S. Kuhr, W. Alt, D. Schrader, V. Gomer, and D. Meschede, “Single atoms in an optical dipole trap: Towards a deterministic source of cold atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3777–3780 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schrader, I. Dotsenko, M. Khudaverdyan, Y. Miroshnychenko, A. Rauschenbeutel, and D. Meschede, “Neutral atom quantum register,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150501 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, D. M. Meekhof, B. E. King, S. R. Jefferts, W. M. Itano, D. J. Wineland, and P. Gould, “Resolved-sideband raman cooling of a bound atom to the 3D zero-point energy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4011–4014 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Roos, D. Leibfried, A. Mundt, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Eschner, and R. Blatt, “Experimental demonstration of ground state laser cooling with electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5547–5550 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Brennen, C. M. Caves, P. S. Jessen, and I. H. Deutsch, “Quantum logic gates in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1060–1063 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Föster, M. Karski, J. M. Choi, A. Steffen, W. Alt, D. Meschede, and A. Widera, “Microwave control of atomic motion in optical lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 233001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaksch, H.-J. Briegel, J. I. Cirac, C. W. Gardiner, and P. Zoller, “Entanglement of atoms via cold controlled collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1975–1978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. J. Wineland, “Quantum dynamics of single trapped ions,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281–324 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Mechanics, 3rd ed. (Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical setup of the trapping (solid line) and imaging (dashed lines) systems. For details see the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b) are the images of focused doughnut spot and radially symmetric Gaussian spot, taken with a linear CCD camera with 16-Bit resolution. (c) and (d) are the LG 0 1 line profile fit and Gaussian line profile fit.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental spectrum of the vibrational frequencies of single atoms in the BFORT (a), and a Gaussian FORT (b). The filled circles depict the probability measurement of the single atoms in the traps after the modulation of the potential depth as a function of the modulation frequency. The solid curves are Gaussian fits to the experimental data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The square root law of oscillation frequency enhancement. The filled squares are the experimental data obtained for a 1 mK red-detuned potential depth, and the line is from the theoretical model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The lifetime measurement of single atoms without the MOT cooling light.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured and theoretical survival probabilities for single atoms trapped in the BFORT. The filled circles are the measured probabilities of single atom remaining in the BFORT after time t. The lines 1 to 3 show the theoretical calculated survival probability for single atoms heated by scattering blue-detuned light (line 1), scattering red-detuned light (line 2), parametric resonance process (line 3). Line 4 is survival probability when all three effects are considered.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurement of the temperature of the atoms in Gaussian FORT and BFORT using the release and recapture method. (a) and (b) are the temperature of the single atoms in Gaussian FORT and BFORT respectively. Each data point is the accumulation of 200 sequences. Superimposed on this data is a fit by the Monte Carlo simulation of the release and recapture method, which is the average of 500 trajectories for each release time. The temperatures of (a) and (b) are 13 ± 1 μK and 15 ± 1 μK respectively.

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U dip ( r , z ) = h ¯ Γ 2 24 I s I ( r , z ) Δ ,
U b ( r ) = e U bmax 2 r 2 w 10 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w 10 2 ) ,
U r ( r ) = U ^ exp ( 2 r 2 w 0 2 ) .
U total ( r ) = U b ( r ) + U r ( r ) = e U bmax 2 r 2 w 10 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w 10 2 ) U ^ exp ( 2 r 2 w 0 2 ) .
U total ( r ) U ^ + 2 ( e U bmax w 0 2 / w 10 2 + U ^ ) r 2 w 0 2 .
ω eff = g ω r = ( e U bmax U ^ w 0 2 w 10 2 + 1 ) 1 / 2 ( 4 U ^ / m w 0 2 ) 1 / 2 .
U total ( r + r d ) = U b ( r ) + U r ( r + r d ) = e U bmax 2 r 2 w 10 2 exp ( 2 r 2 w 10 2 ) U ^ exp ( 2 ( r + r d ) 2 w 0 2 )
U total ( r + r d ) = U b ( r ) + U r ( r + r d ) U ^ +                                                             2 w 0 2 ( e U bmax w 0 2 / w 10 2 + U ^ ) ( r + r d U ^ e U bmax w 0 2 / w 10 2 + U ^ ) 2
E ( t ) = E ( 0 ) e Γ ε t ,
Γ ε = π 2 ν trap 2 S ε ( 2 ν trap ) ,
1 / T x = π 2 ν trap 2 S x ( ν trap ) x 2 ,
Γ sc = Γ h ¯ Δ blue U dip .
Γ ¯ sc = Γ h ¯ Δ blue ( U 0 + 3 2 k B T 0 ) ,
T ˙ blue = 1 2 T rec Γ h ¯ Δ blue k B T ,
T blue ( t ) = T 0 exp ( 1 2 T rec Γ h ¯ Δ blue k B t ) .
T blue ( t ) = T 0 e t / τ ,
T ˙ red = 1 3 T rec Γ h ¯ Δ blue U ^ .
P surv ( ξ ) = 1 ( 1 + ξ + 0.5 ξ 2 ) e ξ ,
Γ Raman 0.01 Γ ¯ sc 0.10 3 2 Γ h ¯ Δ blue k B T 0 4.5 photons / s

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