Abstract

The dispersed fringe sensor (DFS) has been demonstrated as an effective means of measuring mirror segment piston error for telescopes with primary mirror apertures below 10 meters. With larger proposed telescopes such as The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and The European Large Telescope (ELT) including ever more segments, there is a need for improvement in the co-phasing capability for segmented primary mirrors. In this paper a novel DFS that employs polarization phase shifting technology is introduced. This novel technology provides system designers and engineers with a new tool to extend the dynamic range of a DFS.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. F. Shi, G. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, and D. C. Redding, “Experimental verification of dispersed fringe sensing as a segment phasing technique using the Keck telescope,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4474–4481 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. C. Zimmerman, “Feasibility studies for the alignment of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49(18), 3485–3498 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007).
  4. J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. G. Olczak and C. Merle, “Polarization modulated image conjugate piston sensing and phase retrieval system,” ITT Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., US Patent 7,864,333 (2011)
  7. F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Roy and P. Hariharan, “White-light geometric phase interferometer for surface profiling,” Proc. SPIE 2544, 64–73 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. R. Bolcar and J. R. Fienup, “Method of phase diversity in multi-aperture systems utilizing individual sub-aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 5896, 126–133 (2005).
  15. C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory Algorithms, and Software (John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1998)
  17. L. Koechlin, P. R. Lawson, D. Mourard, A. Blazit, D. Bonneau, F. Morand, Ph. Stee, I. Tallon-Bosc, and F. Vakili, “Dispersed fringe tracking with the multi-ro apertures of the Grand Interféromètre à 2 Télescopes,” Appl. Opt. 35(16), 3002–3009 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  19. G. Olczak, “Recent advances in wavefront sensing at ITT,” ITT Internal Report (2009).

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

D. C. Zimmerman, “Feasibility studies for the alignment of the Thirty Meter Telescope,” Appl. Opt. 49(18), 3485–3498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

2005 (2)

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Bolcar and J. R. Fienup, “Method of phase diversity in multi-aperture systems utilizing individual sub-aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 5896, 126–133 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Shi, G. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, and D. C. Redding, “Experimental verification of dispersed fringe sensing as a segment phasing technique using the Keck telescope,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4474–4481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154(5-6), 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Roy and P. Hariharan, “White-light geometric phase interferometer for surface profiling,” Proc. SPIE 2544, 64–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

Basinger, S. A.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bikkannavar, S.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

Blazit, A.

Bolcar, M. R.

M. R. Bolcar and J. R. Fienup, “Method of phase diversity in multi-aperture systems utilizing individual sub-aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 5896, 126–133 (2005).

Bonneau, D.

Bowers, C. W.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brock, N.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burns, L. A.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G.

Chanan, G.

Cherel, L.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delisle, C.

Fienup, J. R.

M. R. Bolcar and J. R. Fienup, “Method of phase diversity in multi-aperture systems utilizing individual sub-aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 5896, 126–133 (2005).

Hariharan, P.

M. Roy and P. Hariharan, “White-light geometric phase interferometer for surface profiling,” Proc. SPIE 2544, 64–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helen, S.

S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154(5-6), 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, D. J.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

Koechlin, L.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kothiyal, M. P.

S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154(5-6), 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kothiyal and C. Delisle, “Shearing interferometer for phase shifting interferometry with polarization phase shifter,” Appl. Opt. 24(24), 4439–4442 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawson, P. R.

Lowman, A. E.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Millerd, J.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monken, C. H.

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morand, F.

Mourard, D.

North-Morris, M.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Novak, M.

M. Novak, J. Millerd, N. Brock, M. North-Morris, J. Hayes, and J. Wyant, “Analysis of a micropolarizer array-based simultaneous phase-shifting interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6861–6868 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, C.

Ohara, C. M.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pa’dua, S.

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrone, P.

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Redding, D. C.

F. Shi, G. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, and D. C. Redding, “Experimental verification of dispersed fringe sensing as a segment phasing technique using the Keck telescope,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4474–4481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, M.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Roy and P. Hariharan, “White-light geometric phase interferometer for surface profiling,” Proc. SPIE 2544, 64–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seo, B.-J.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

F. Shi, G. Chanan, C. Ohara, M. Troy, and D. C. Redding, “Experimental verification of dispersed fringe sensing as a segment phasing technique using the Keck telescope,” Appl. Opt. 43(23), 4474–4481 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sigrist, N.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

Sirohi, R. S.

S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154(5-6), 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Spechler, J. A.

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

Stee, Ph.

Svahn, P.

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tallon-Bosc, I.

Terra Cunha, M. O.

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Troy, M.

Vakili, F.

Walborn, S. P.

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J.

Wyant, J. C.

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W.

Zimmerman, D. C.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Helen, M. P. Kothiyal, and R. S. Sirohi, “Achromatic phase-shifting by a rotating polarizer,” Opt. Commun. 154(5-6), 249–254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

M. Roy, P. Svahn, L. Cherel, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Geometric phase-shifting for low-coherence interference microscopy,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 37(6), 631–641 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. P. Walborn, M. O. Terra Cunha, S. Pa’dua, and C. H. Monken, “Double-slit quantum eraser,” Phys. Rev. A 65(3), 033818 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (6)

J. A. Spechler, D. J. Hoppe, N. Sigrist, F. Shi, B.-J. Seo, and S. Bikkannavar, “Advanced DFS: a dispersed fringe sensing algorithm insensitive to small calibration errors,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773155 (2010).

M. Roy and P. Hariharan, “White-light geometric phase interferometer for surface profiling,” Proc. SPIE 2544, 64–73 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Bolcar and J. R. Fienup, “Method of phase diversity in multi-aperture systems utilizing individual sub-aperture control,” Proc. SPIE 5896, 126–133 (2005).

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Simultaneous phase-shift interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 1531, 119–127 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Millerd, N. Brock, J. Hayes, M. North-Morris, M. Novak, and J. C. Wyant, “Pixelated phase-mask dynamic interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 5531, 304–314 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Shi, D. C. Redding, A. E. Lowman, C. W. Bowers, L. A. Burns, P. Petrone, C. M. Ohara, and S. A. Basinger, “Segmented mirror coarse phasing with a dispersed fringe sensor: experiment on NGST’s wavefront control testbed,” Proc. SPIE 4850, 318–328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Schreiber and J. H. Bruning, “Phase shifting interferometry,” in Optical Shop Testing, 3rd ed., D. Malacara, ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2007).

G. Olczak and C. Merle, “Polarization modulated image conjugate piston sensing and phase retrieval system,” ITT Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc., US Patent 7,864,333 (2011)

D. C. Ghiglia and M. D. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory Algorithms, and Software (John Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1998)

G. Olczak, “Recent advances in wavefront sensing at ITT,” ITT Internal Report (2009).

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