Abstract

We report the first room temperature optical spin-injection of a dilute nitride 1300 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) under continuous-wave optical pumping. We also present a novel experimental protocol for the investigation of optical spin-injection with a fiber setup. The experimental results indicate that the VCSEL polarization can be controlled by the pump polarization, and the measured behavior is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions using the spin flip model. The ability to control the polarization of a long-wavelength VCSEL at room temperature emitting at the wavelength of 1.3 µm opens up a new exciting research avenue for novel uses in disparate fields of technology ranging from spintronics to optical telecommunication networks.

© 2012 OSA

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Holub and P. Bhattacharya, “Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(11), R179–R203 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Mätzler, Thermal Microwave Radiation: Applications for Remote Sensing (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006).
  14. M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. J. Adams and D. Alexandropoulos, “Parametric analysis of spin-polarised VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 744–749 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. J. Adams and D. Alexandropoulos, “Parametric analysis of spin-polarised VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Holub and P. Bhattacharya, “Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(11), R179–R203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abraham, N. B.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. R.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M.

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. J.

M. J. Adams and D. Alexandropoulos, “Parametric analysis of spin-polarised VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alexandropoulos, D.

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and D. Alexandropoulos, “Parametric analysis of spin-polarised VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Al-Seyab, R.

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amand, T.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

M. Holub and P. Bhattacharya, “Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(11), R179–R203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P.-F.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, C.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, S.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carrère, H.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Döhrmann, S.

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fehse, R.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Q.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, M.

A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gahl, A.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, N.

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerhardt, N. C.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L. A.

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gotoh, H.

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hägele, D.

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Harmand, J. C.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Henning, I.

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M. R.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holub, M.

M. Holub and P. Bhattacharya, “Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(11), R179–R203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, J.-M.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hövel, S.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iba, S.

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, K.

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jouhti, T.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalevich, V. K.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karirinne, S.

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keune, W.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Knowles, G.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koh, S.

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kontinnen, J.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Konttinen, J.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laurand, N.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lo, F.-Y.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lombez, L.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marie, X.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Regalado, J.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, M.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miguel, M. S.

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J.

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Reilly, E. P.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oestreich, M.

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavelescu, E.-M.

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. S.

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prati, F.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, M.

A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reith, C.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renucci, P.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reuter, D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riechert, H.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, J.

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sale, T. E.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

San Miguel, M.

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, E.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sogawa, T.

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinle, G.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stolz, W.

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, S. J.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tomic, S.

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Urbaszek, B.

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, S. J.

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A.

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

J. Rudolph, D. Hägele, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, and M. Oestreich, “Laser threshold reduction in a spintronic device,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4516–4518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudolph, S. Döhrmann, D. Hägele, M. Oestreich, and W. Stolz, “Room-temperature threshold reduction in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by injection of spin-polarized electrons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(24), 241117 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ando, T. Sogawa, and H. Gotoh, “Photon-spin controlled lasing oscillation in surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 566–568 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Iba, S. Koh, K. Ikeda, and H. Kawaguchi, “Room temperature circularly polarized lasing in an optically spin injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with (110) GaAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Lombez, P.-F. Braun, H. Carrère, B. Urbaszek, P. Renucci, T. Amand, X. Marie, J. C. Harmand, and V. K. Kalevich, “Spin dynamics in dilute nitride semiconductors at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(25), 252115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Reith, S. J. White, M. Mazilu, A. Miller, J. Konttinen, M. Guina, and M. Pessa, “Room temperature electron spin relaxation in GaInNAs multiple quantum wells at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(21), 211122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

N. Gerhardt, S. Hövel, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Enhancement of spin information with vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 88–89 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hövel, N. Gerhardt, M. Hofmann, J. Yang, D. Reuter, and A. Wieck, “Spin controlled optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 41(5), 251–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

A. Gahl, S. Balle, and M. S. Miguel, “Polarization dynamics of optically pumped VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(3), 342–351 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Martin-Regalado, F. Prati, M. San Miguel, and N. B. Abraham, “Polarization properties of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33(5), 765–783 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Adams and D. Alexandropoulos, “Parametric analysis of spin-polarised VCSELs,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45(6), 744–749 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Knowles, R. Fehse, S. Tomić, S. J. Sweeney, T. E. Sale, A. R. Adams, E. P. O’Reilly, G. Steinle, and H. Riechert, “Investigation of 1.3-µm GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) using temperature, high-pressure, and modeling techniques,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1202–1208 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

R. Al-Seyab, D. Alexandropoulos, I. Henning, and M. Adams, “Instabilities in spin-polarized vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” IEEE Photon. J. 3(5), 799–809 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Forchel, M. Reinhardt, and M. Fischer, “A monolithic GaInAsN vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser for the 1.3-µm regime,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(10), 1313–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Holub and P. Bhattacharya, “Spin-polarized light-emitting diodes and lasers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 40(11), R179–R203 (2007).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

T. Jouhti, O. Okhotnikov, J. Konttinen, L. A. Gomes, C. S. Peng, S. Karirinne, E.-M. Pavelescu, and M. Pessa, “Dilute nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” New J. Phys. 5, 841–846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. San Miguel, Q. Feng, and J. Moloney, “Light-polarization dynamics in surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 52(2), 1728–1739 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

S. Hövel, N. C. Gerhardt, C. Brenner, M. R. Hofmann, F.-Y. Lo, D. Reuter, A. D. Wieck, E. Schuster, and W. Keune, “Spin-controlled LEDs and VCSELs,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(2), 500–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

S. Calvez, N. Laurand, S. Smith, A. Clark, J.-M. Hopkins, H. Sun, M. Dawson, T. Jouhti, J. Kontinnen, and M. Pessa, “Novel 1.3-µm GaInNAs surface-normal devices,” in European Materials Research Society 2004 Spring Meeting, (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Mätzler, Thermal Microwave Radiation: Applications for Remote Sensing (Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics