Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) Si-nanorod arrays offer a promising architecture that has been widely recognized as attractive devices for photovoltaic applications. To further reduce the Fresnel reflection that occurs at the interface between the air and the 2D Si-nanorod array because of the large difference in their effective refractive indices, we propose and adopt a slanted ITO film as an intermediate layer by using oblique-angle sputtering deposition. The nearly continuous surface of the slanted ITO film is lossless and has high electrical conductivity; therefore, it could serve as an electrode layer for solar cells. As a result, the combination of the above-mentioned nanostructures exhibits high optical absorption over a broad range of wavelengths and incident angles, along with a calculated short-circuit current density of JSC = 32.81 mA/cm2 and a power generation efficiency of η = 22.70%, which corresponds to an improvement of approximately 42% over that of its bare single-crystalline Si counterpart.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (5)

2010 (5)

F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, J. Li, X. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Optical absorption enhancement in nanopore textured-silicon thin film for photovoltaic application,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 40–42 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Jung, Z. Guo, S.-W. Jee, H.-D. Um, K.-T. Park, and J.-H. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 18(S3), A286–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, C.-J. Lee, and C.-M. Cheng, “Enhancing the conversion efficiency of red emission by spin-coating CdSe quantum dots on the green nanorod light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 18(S4), A554–A561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

M.-F. Chen, H.-C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of optical path for wide-angle gradient-index antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6533–6538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

K. M. Rosfjord, J. K. W. Yang, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, V. Anant, B. M. Voronov, G. N. Gol’tsman, and K. K. Berggren, “Nanowire single-photon detector with an integrated optical cavity and anti-reflection coating,” Opt. Express 14(2), 527–534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, and C.-C. Kao, “Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Lisfi and J. C. Lodder, “Magnetic domains in Co thin films obliquely sputtered on a polymer substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 63(17), 174441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

C. Henry, “Limiting efficiencies of ideal single and multiple energy gap terrestrial solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 51(8), 4494–4500 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, and F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20(8), 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Algra, R. E.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

An, S. J.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anant, V.

Arafune, K.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, and F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20(8), 3292–3302 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berggren, K. K.

Berginc, G.

F. Flory, L. Escoubas, and G. Berginc, “Optical properties of nanostructured materials: a review,” J. Nanophoton. 5(1), 052502 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bhatia, C. S.

Birner, A.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Brunner, R.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chae, J. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. S. P.

Chang, C.-H.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-C.

Chang, Y. C.

Chang, Y. H.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Y.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, S.

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Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
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S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
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J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
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J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
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Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
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C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G.-R.

G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, and C.-C. Kao, “Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073108 (2006).
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G.-R. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, H.-S. Lin, and C.-C. Kao, “Rapid self-assembly of Ni nanodots on Si substrate covered by a less-adhesive and heat-accumulated SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 073108 (2006).
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Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

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J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
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A. Lisfi and J. C. Lodder, “Magnetic domains in Co thin films obliquely sputtered on a polymer substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 63(17), 174441 (2001).
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T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
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Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
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Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231105 (2007).
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A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nielsch, K.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. I.

W. Q. Xie, W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Optical absorption in c-Si/a-Si:H core/shell nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohshita, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. L.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, C. Y.

Park, G. H.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-T.

Peng, C. Y.

Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, D. W.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petykiewicz, J. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Putnam, M. C.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rivas, J. G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosfjord, K. M.

Ruby, D. S.

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Chen, H.-C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of optical path for wide-angle gradient-index antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6533–6538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Shen, W. Z.

W. Q. Xie, W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Optical absorption in c-Si/a-Si:H core/shell nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Son, J.

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

Spatz, J. P.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sun, C.-H.

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sundermann, M.

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
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D. E. Aspnes, J. B. Theeten, and F. Hottier, “Investigation of effective-medium models of microscopic surface roughness by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 20(8), 3292–3302 (1979).
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B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D. B.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Um, H.-D.

Vecchi, G.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verma, L. K.

Voronov, B. M.

Vos, W. L.

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

Wang, G.-C.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S. C.

Wang, S.-C.

Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Warren, E. L.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Wong, S. M.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. T.

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xi, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

M.-F. Chen, H.-C. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, “Design of optical path for wide-angle gradient-index antireflection coatings,” Appl. Opt. 46(26), 6533–6538 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, W. Q.

W. Q. Xie, W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Optical absorption in c-Si/a-Si:H core/shell nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. Q.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-S.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Yang, J. K. W.

Ye, D.-X.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, C. I.

Yi, G.-C.

S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. Y.

F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, J. Li, X. Sun, X. Wang, and H. Zheng, “Optical absorption enhancement in nanopore textured-silicon thin film for photovoltaic application,” Opt. Lett. 35(1), 40–42 (2010).
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J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

Yu, J.-C.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z. F.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yugami, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

Zhang, G.

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Zhao, D.-X. Ye, G.-C. Wang, and T.-M. Lu, “Designing nanostructures by glancing angle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 5219, 59–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, H.

Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (3)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index Indium Tin Oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Yu, C.-H. Chang, C.-H. Chiu, C.-S. Yang, J.-C. Yu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-H. Hsu, and Y.-C. Chang, “Efficiency enhancement of GaAs photovoltaics employing antireflective Indium Tin Oxide nanocolumns,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(16), 1618–1621 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Diedenhofen, G. Vecchi, R. E. Algra, A. Hartsuiker, O. L. Muskens, G. Immink, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, W. L. Vos, and J. G. Rivas, “Broad-band and omnidirectional antireflection coatings based on semiconductor nanorods,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(9), 973–978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y.-J. Lee, S.-Y. Lin, C.-H. Chiu, T.-C. Lu, H.-C. Kuo, S.-C. Wang, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “High output power density from GaN-based two-dimensional nanorod light-emitting diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(14), 141111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Xie, W. F. Liu, J. I. Oh, and W. Z. Shen, “Optical absorption in c-Si/a-Si:H core/shell nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 033107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. J. An, J. H. Chae, G.-C. Yi, and G. H. Park, “Enhanced light output of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with ZnO nanorod arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, H. Y. Yu, S. M. Wong, X. Li, G. Zhang, P. G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Design guidelines of periodic Si nanowire arrays for solar cell application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(24), 243113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Wu, F. H. Ko, and C. H. Lin, “Self-organized tantalum oxide nanopyramidal arrays for antireflective structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171911 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Sun, W.-L. Min, N. C. Linn, P. Jiang, and B. Jiang, “Templated fabrication of large area subwavelength antireflection gratings on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(23), 231105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujii, K. Arafune, Y. Ohshita, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Kanamori, and H. Yugami, “Antireflective subwavelength structures on crystalline Si fabricated using directly formed anodic porous alumina masks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, “Nanostructured multilayer graded-index antireflection coating for Si solar cells with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(25), 251108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, and U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50-420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(11), 6023–6026 (1998).
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J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

B.-S. Chiou and J.-H. Tsai, “Antireflective coating for ITO films deposited on glass substrate,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 10(7), 491–495 (1999).
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F. Flory, L. Escoubas, and G. Berginc, “Optical properties of nanostructured materials: a review,” J. Nanophoton. 5(1), 052502 (2011).
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Nano Lett. (3)

Y.-J. Lee, D. S. Ruby, D. W. Peters, B. B. McKenzie, and J. W. P. Hsu, “ZnO nanostructures as efficient antireflection layers in solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1501–1505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Lohmüller, M. Helgert, M. Sundermann, R. Brunner, and J. P. Spatz, “Biomimetic interfaces for high-performance optics in the deep-UV light range,” Nano Lett. 8(5), 1429–1433 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhu, Z. F. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Q. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. H. Fan, and Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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Y. F. Huang, S. Chattopadhyay, Y. J. Jen, C. Y. Peng, T. A. Liu, Y. K. Hsu, C. L. Pan, H. C. Lo, C. H. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, C. S. Lee, K. H. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Improved broadband and quasi-omnidirectional anti-reflection properties with biomimetic silicon nanostructures,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 2(12), 770–774 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1, 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (8)

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
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C. H. Chiu, P. Yu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Chen, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, S. H. Hsu, Y. J. Cheng, and Y. C. Chang, “Broadband and omnidirectional antireflection employing disordered GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8748–8754 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the fabrication of 2D Si-nanorod array with slanted ITO film. (b) SEM image of nano-sized Ni clusters, in which the scale bare is 1μm. Insert: statistics of the diameter of distributed Ni clusters. (c) SEM (left hand) and AFM (right hand) images of the slanted ITO film grown on top of the 2D Si-nanorod array. The scale bar of the SEM image is 1 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured complex refractive indices of (a) bare Si and 2D Si-nanorod array, and (b) normal and slanted deposited ITO films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-sectional SEM images of (a) normally deposited (planar-sheet) ITO film, 2D Si-nanorod arrays (b) without, and (c) with the slanted ITO film. The scale bar of 500nm in the top column applies to all images. The variation of (average) refractive index along the z-direction of each image is also presented in the figure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured reflectivity as a function of normal-incident wavelength for bare Si without (black solid-line) and with (red solid-line) ITO quarter-wavelength ARC, and for the 2D Si-nanorod arrays without (green solid-line) and with (blue solid-line) the slanted ITO film. Insert: photographs of the fabricated samples with dimensions of 2cm × 2cm. (b) Calculated reflectivity as a function of normal-incident wavelength by the Airy formula for all samples. Insert: schematic of solar light emitted into the m-layer stack (c) Calculated absorption, A(θ, λ) = 1- R(θ, λ), obtained by the incidence of TM polarized light for all samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated J-V curves using Eq. (8) for all samples. (b) A plot of Aavg calculations corresponding to each absorption A(θ,λ) shown in Fig. 4(c), showing the incident solar light and spectrally weighted absorption of each throughout the day.

Equations (9)

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n eff (λ)= n Si (λ)+(1 π D 2 4 a 2 )[ n air n Si (λ)]
R(θ,λ)= | r 12m | 2 = | r 12 + r 23m e i2 φ 2 1+ r 12 r 23m e i2 φ 2 | 2 , φ 2 = 2π λ 0 n ˜ 2 d 2 , n ˜ 2 = n 2 i κ 2
r 23m = r 23 + r 34m e i2 φ 3 1+ r 23 r 34m e i2 φ 3 , φ 3 = 2π λ 0 n ˜ 3 d 3 , n ˜ 3 = n 3 i κ 3
r 34m = r 34 + r 45m e i2 φ 4 1+ r 34 r 45m e i2 φ 4 , φ 4 = 2π λ 0 n ˜ 4 d 4 , n ˜ 4 = n 4 i κ 4
r (m2)(m1)m = r (m2)(m1) + r (m1)m e i2 φ m1 1+ r (m2)(m1) r (m1)m e i2 φ m1 , φ m1 = 2π λ 0 n ˜ m1 d m1 , n ˜ m1 = n m1 i κ m1
r (m1)m = n ˜ m1 cos θ m1 n ˜ m cos θ m n ˜ m1 cos θ m1 + n ˜ m cos θ m for TE , n ˜ m = n m i κ m
r (m1)m = n ˜ m1 cos θ m n ˜ m cos θ m1 n ˜ m1 cos θ m + n ˜ m cos θ m1 for TM , n ˜ m = n m i κ m
J(V)= q hc 0 λ dI dλ A(λ)dλ q( n 2 +1) E g 2 kT 4π 3 c 2 e ( eV E g kT )
A avg = Γ(t,λ)A(θ(t),λ)cos(θ(t))dλdt Γ(t,λ)cos(θ(t))dλdt

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