Abstract

Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors’ knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. Senlin, “Study on the method of controlling chaos in an Er-doped fiber dual-ring laser via external optical injection and shifting optical feedback light,” Chaos 17(1), 013106 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40 GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55 μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 966–968 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

S. Arahira, “Variable in, variable out optical clock recovery with an optically injection locked and regeneratively actively mode locked laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 614–621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, M. Haji, J. Akbar, B. Qiu, and A. C. Bryce, “Low divergence angle and low jitter 40 GHz AlGaInAs/InP 1.55 μm mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 966–968 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. Hou, M. Haji, R. Dylewicz, P. Stolarz, B. Qiu, E. A. Avrutin, and A. C. Bryce, “160 GHz harmonic mode-locked AlGaInAs 1.55 μm strained quantum-well compound-cavity laser,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 3991–3993 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. R. Heck, E. J. Salumbides, A. Renault, E. A. J. M. Bente, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, R. van Veldhoven, R. Nötzel, K. S. E. Eikema, and W. Ubachs, “Analysis of hybrid mode-locking of two-section quantum dot lasers operating at 1.5 μm,” Opt. Express 17(20), 18063–18075 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Senlin, “Study on the method of controlling chaos in an Er-doped fiber dual-ring laser via external optical injection and shifting optical feedback light,” Chaos 17(1), 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. Arahira and Y. Ogawa, “Synchronous mode locking in passively mode locked semiconductor laser diodes using optical short pulses repeated at subharmonics of the cavity round trip frequency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 191–193 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

G. T. Harvey and L. F. Mollenauer, “Harmonically mode-locked fiber ring laser with an internal Fabry-Perot stabilizer for soliton transmission,” Opt. Lett. 18(2), 107–109 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, “Optical feedback stabilization of the intensity oscillations in ultrahigh frequency passively modelocked monolithic quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1264–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Abedin, K. S.

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akbar, J.

Akrout, A.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Andreeva, E. V.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arahira, S.

S. Arahira, “Variable in, variable out optical clock recovery with an optically injection locked and regeneratively actively mode locked laser diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 47(5), 614–621 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Arahira and Y. Ogawa, “Synchronous mode locking in passively mode locked semiconductor laser diodes using optical short pulses repeated at subharmonics of the cavity round trip frequency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 191–193 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arsenijevic, D.

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aubin, G.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, E. A.

Azouigui, S.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batovrin, V. K.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

Bente, E. J. M.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Breuer, S.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bryce, A. C.

Carpintero, G.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cataluna, M. A.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Den Boef, A.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Deparis, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

Duan, G.-H.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dylewicz, R.

Eikema, K. S. E.

Elsäßer, W.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Emplit, P.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

En-Ze, Y.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ferrè-Pikal, E.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiol, G.

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gee, S.

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giuliani, G.

M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Grigoryan, V. S.

M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, K. K.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haelterman, M.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haji, M.

Harvey, G. T.

Haus, H. A.

Heck, M. J. R.

Hollberg, L.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, L.

Huyet, G.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, M. Shirasaki, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse limiting,” Opt. Lett. 19(1), 31–33 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L. A.

L. A. Jiang, K. S. Abedin, M. E. Grein, and E. P. Ippen, “Timing jitter reduction in modelocked semiconductor lasers with photon seeding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(10), 1707–1709 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin-Long, Y.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kefelian, F.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiyan, R.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kleinert, M.

G. Fiol, M. Kleinert, D. Arsenijević, and D. Bimberg, “1.3 μm range 40 GHz quantum-dot mode locked laser under external continuous wave light injection or optical feedback,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 26(1), 014006 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, “Optical feedback stabilization of the intensity oscillations in ultrahigh frequency passively modelocked monolithic quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1264–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lelarge, F.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenstra, D.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipin, M. E.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li-Tai, Z.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-F.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Magnitskiy, S. A.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McInerney, J. G.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Megret, P.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merghem, K.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

Naderi, N. A.

C. Lin, F. Grillot, N. A. Naderi, Y. Li, and L. F. Lester, “RF linewidth reduction in a quantum dot passively mode locked laser subject to external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikitichev, D.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Novak, D.

K. K. Gupta, D. Novak, and H.-F. Liu, “Noise characterization of a regeneratively mode-locked fiber ring laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(1), 70–78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Donoghue, S.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

Ogawa, Y.

S. Arahira and Y. Ogawa, “Synchronous mode locking in passively mode locked semiconductor laser diodes using optical short pulses repeated at subharmonics of the cavity round trip frequency,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(2), 191–193 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozharar, S.

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Passerini, M.

M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pochet, M.

F. Grillot, C. Lin, N. A. Naderi, M. Pochet, and L. F. Lester, “Optical feedback instabilities in a monolithic InAs/GaAs quantum dot passively mode locked laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(15), 153503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pottiez, O.

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, M. Haelterman, R. Kiyan, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Experimental study of supermode noise of harmonically mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers with composite cavity,” Opt. Commun. 202(1-3), 161–167 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pottiez, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, M. Haelterman, P. Emplit, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Supermode noise of harmonically mode locked erbium fiber lasers with composite cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(3), 252–259 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Kiyan, O. Deparis, O. Pottiez, P. Megret, and M. Blondel, “Stabilisation of actively modelocked Er-doped fibre laser by minimizing interpulse noise power,” Electron. Lett. 34(25), 2410–2411 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pozo, J.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, B.

Quinlan, F.

F. Quinlan, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Harmonically mode locked semiconductor based lasers as high repetition rate ultralow noise pulse train and optical frequency comb sources,” J. Opt. A 11(10), 103001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E.

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramdane, A.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renault, A.

Römisch, S.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rorison, J.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosales, R.

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salik, E.

N. Yu, E. Salik, and L. Maleki, “Ultralow-noise mode-locked laser with coupled optoelectronic oscillator configuration,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1231–1233 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Salumbides, E. J.

Senlin, Y.

Y. Senlin, “Study on the method of controlling chaos in an Er-doped fiber dual-ring laser via external optical injection and shifting optical feedback light,” Chaos 17(1), 013106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, M.

M. Shin, V. S. Grigoryan, and P. Kumar, “Frequency-doubling optoelectronic oscillator for generating high frequency microwave signals with low phase noise,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shirasaki, M.

Shramenko, M. V.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

Solgaard, O.

O. Solgaard and K. Y. Lau, “Optical feedback stabilization of the intensity oscillations in ultrahigh frequency passively modelocked monolithic quantum well lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(11), 1264–1267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

M. Passerini, G. Giuliani, and M. Sorel, “Effect of optical feedback on 60-GHz colliding pulse semiconductor mode locked lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 965–967 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Starodubov, D. S.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stolarz, P.

Tamura, K.

Thompson, M. G.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Todaro, M. T.

F. Kefelian, S. O’Donoghue, M. T. Todaro, J. G. McInerney, and G. Huyet, “RF linewidth in monolithic passively mode locked semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(16), 1405–1407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

van Veldhoven, R.

Verbeek, B.

D. Lenstra, B. Verbeek, and A. Den Boef, “Coherence collapse in single mode semiconductor lasers due to optical feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(6), 674–679 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Villafranca, A.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vogiatzis, N.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walls, F. L.

S. Römisch, J. Kitching, E. Ferrè-Pikal, L. Hollberg, and F. L. Walls, “Performance evaluation of an optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47(5), 1159–1165 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. H.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low noise performance of passively mode-locked 10-GHz quantum dot laser diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. A.

K. A. Williams, M. G. Thompson, and I. H. White, “Long wavelength monolithic mode locked diode lasers,” New J. Phys. 6, 179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakubovich, S. D.

E. V. Andreeva, V. K. Batovrin, M. E. Lipin, S. A. Magnitskiy, E. Salik, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, M. V. Shramenko, and S. D. Yakubovich, “Picosecond semiconductor lasers with an external fibre resonator,” Quantum Electron. 30(2), 158–160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yao-Tian, W.

J. Yang, Y. Jin-Long, W. Yao-Tian, Z. Li-Tai, and Y. En-Ze, “An optical domain combined dual-loop optoelectronic oscillator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 807–809 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yousefi, M.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

Yvind, K.

S. Breuer, W. Elsäßer, J. G. McInerney, K. Yvind, J. Pozo, E. J. M. Bente, M. Yousefi, A. Villafranca, N. Vogiatzis, and J. Rorison, “Investigations of repetition rate stability of a mode-locked quantum dot semiconductor laser in an auxiliary optical fiber cavity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(2), 150–157 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

Y. Ding, M. A. Cataluna, D. Nikitichev, I. Krestnikov, D. Livshits, and E. Rafailov, “Broad repetition rate tunable quantum-dot external cavity passively modelocked laser with extremely narrow radio frequency linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(6), 062703 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

K. Merghem, R. Rosales, S. Azouigui, A. Akrout, A. Martinez, F. Lelarge, G.-H. Duan, G. Aubin, and A. Ramdane, “Low noise performance of passively mode locked quantum-dash-based lasers under external optical feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(13), 131111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental configuration of the dual optical feedback loop. (circ.: optical circulator, atten.: optical attenuator), and (b) schematic diagram representing the alignment of modes in outer loop, inner loop, MLLD, and resulting output.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) RF spectrum of MLLD signal with aligned feedback (blue trace) and free running (red trace). (inset: 40 GHz RF span, free from Q-switching instabilities), (b) corresponding SSB phase noise, (c) the misaligned composite cavity length resulting in large supermode noise resonances, and (d) optimized (aligned) composite cavity length resulting in supermode noise suppression. (RF spectra were measured using 20 Hz resolution bandwidth and 10 Hz video bandwidth).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Optical spectrum of MLLD with aligned feedback (blue trace) and free running (red trace), and (b) corresponding autocorrelation traces measured using second harmonic generation autocorrelator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Main: RF spectra of MLLD signal with feedback using different fiber lengths. Inset: RF linewidth vs. inverse feedback loop length (1/L) measured with a feedback signal intensity of −26 dBm (black squares); corresponding linear fit (red), (b) RF linewidth values of MLLD with feedback as a function of the feedback signal intensity plotted in a logarithmic scale for different fiber lengths (listed in figure). Inset: RF linewidth vs. feedback intensity plotted in a linear scale for 66 m long fiber loop.

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