Abstract

We have substantially improved the performance of interband cascade lasers emitting at λ = 4.7 and 5.6 μm, by applying the recently-pioneered approach of heavily doping the injector regions to rebalance the electron and hole concentrations in the active quantum wells. Ridges of ≈10 μm width, 4 mm length, and high-reflectivity back facets achieve maximum continuous wave operating temperatures of 60°C and 48°C, respectively. The threshold power density of ≈1 kW/cm2 at T = 25°C is over an order of magnitude lower than for state-of-the-art quantum cascade lasers emitting in this spectral range.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2011

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

1997

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abell, J.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Allerman, A. A.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, N.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bewley, W. W.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canedy, C. L.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Darvish, S. R.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, L.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Go, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. B.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keay, J. C.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, C. S.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klem, J. F.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. R.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larrabee, D. C.

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-H.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindle, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyakh, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maulini, R.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Merritt, C. D.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, T. D.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Murry, S. J.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nolde, J. A.

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. K. N.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pei, S. S.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pflügl, C.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ram-Mohan, L. R.

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santos, M. B.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Slivken, S.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Z.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsekoun, A.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. J.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, C. Pflügl, L. Diehl, Q. J. Wang, F. Capasso, and C. K. N. Patel, “3 W continuous-wave room temperature single-facet emission from quantum cascade lasers based on nonresonant extraction design approach,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(14), 141113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bai, S. Slivken, S. R. Darvish, and M. Razeghi, “Room-temperature continuous-wave operation of quantum cascade lasers with 12.5% wall plug efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 021103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Corrugated-sidewall interband cascade lasers single-mode midwave-infrared emission at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(23), 231103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

J. R. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, R. Q. Yang, and L. R. Ram-Mohan, “Type-II and type-I interband cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 32(1), 45–46 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Lin, R. Q. Yang, D. Zhang, S. J. Murry, S. S. Pei, A. A. Allerman, and S. R. Kurtz, “Type-II interband quantum cascade laser at 3.8 μm,” Electron. Lett. 33(7), 598–599 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-IR type-II interband cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(5), 1435–1444 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Bai, S. R. Darvish, N. Bandyopadhyay, S. Slivken, and M. Razeghi, “Optimizing facet coating of quantum cascade lasers for low power consumption,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

C. L. Canedy, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. A. Nolde, D. C. Larrabee, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Interband cascade lasers with wavelenghths spanning 2.9 μm to 5.2 μm,” J. Electron. Mater. 37(12), 1780–1785 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, D. C. Larrabee, J. A. Nolde, W. W. Bewley, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “High-power, narrow-ridge, mid-infared interband cascade lasers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 26(3), 1160–1162 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature Commun

I. Vurgaftman, W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, C. D. Merritt, J. Abell, J. R. Lindle, and J. R. Meyer, “Rebalancing of internally generated carriers for mid-infrared interband cascade lasers with very low power consumption,” Nature Commun 2, 585 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

I. Vurgaftman, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, and J. R. Meyer, “Mid-infrared interband cascade lasers operating at ambient temperatures,” New J. Phys. 11(12), 125015 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

W. W. Bewley, C. L. Canedy, C. S. Kim, M. Kim, J. R. Lindle, J. Abell, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Ridge width dependence of mid-infrared interband cascade laser characteristics,” Opt. Eng. 49(11), 111116 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

Z. Tian, C. Chen, R. Q. Yang, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Santos, J. C. Keay, M. B. Johnson, and J. F. Klem, “InAs-based plasmon-waveguide interband cascade lasers,” Proc. SPIE 7616, 76161B, 76161B-9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct.

R. Q. Yang, “Infrared-laser based on intersubband transitions in quantum-wells,” Superlattices Microstruct. 17(1), 77–83 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micrograph of a 10.3-μm-wide ridge fabricated from Sample B and covered with 4 μm of electroplated gold. The positions of the top and bottom cladding layers, separate confinement layers, and active core are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Threshold current densities for the 10.9- and 10.3-μm-wide 4-mm-long ridges with one HR coating fabricated from Samples A and B, respectively, vs. of temperature in continuous-wave mode. The inset shows the cw emission spectra at 25°C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Light-current-voltage characteristics at a series of temperatures for a 10.9 μm × 4 mm ridge with one HR coating fabricated from Sample A.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Light-current-voltage characteristics at a series of temperatures for a 10.3 μm × 4 mm ridge with one HR coating fabricated from Sample B.

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