Abstract

We report on high speed operation of a Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well (MQW) electro-absorption modulator in a waveguide configuration. 23 GHz bandwidth is experimentally demonstrated from a 3 µm wide and 90 µm long Ge/SiGe MQW waveguide. The modulator exhibits a high extinction ratio of more than 10 dB over a wide spectral range. Moreover with a swing voltage of 1 V between 3 and 4 V, an extinction ratio as high as 9 dB can be obtained with a corresponding estimated energy consumption of 108 fJ per bit. This demonstrates the potentiality of Ge/SiGe MQWs as a building block of silicon compatible photonic integrated circuits for short distance energy efficient optical interconnections.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (7)

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lever, Y. Hu, M. Myronov, X. Liu, N. Owens, F. Y. Gardes, I. P. Marko, S. J. Sweeney, Z. Ikonić, D. R. Leadley, G. T. Reed, and R. W. Kelsall, “Modulation of the absorption coefficient at 1.3 μm in Ge/SiGe multiple quantum well heterostructures on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4158–4160 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Asghari, M.

Assefa, S.

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bedell, S. W.

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chaisakul, P.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Claussen, S. A.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

Coudevylle, J.-R.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, L.

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

Edmond, S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, E. H.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Fédéli, J. M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fei, E. T.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fidaner, O.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fong, J.

Gardes, F. Y.

Gatti, E.

Ge, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hackbarth, T.

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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

Helman, N. C.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
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Huo, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
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Ikonic, Z.

Isella, G.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
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N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
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S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

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Kimerling, L.

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
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J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
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R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
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N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
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G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Lange, C.

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
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P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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Lee, Y. K.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
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S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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Marris-Morini, D.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
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R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

Myronov, M.

Ochalski, T. J.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
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Owens, N.

Pan, D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Qing, F.

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D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
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Ren, S.

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

Rice, P. M.

Rong, Y.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Rössner, B.

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Rouifed, M.-S.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Schmitt-Rink, S.

Shafiiha, R.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Sweeney, S. J.

Tan, M. R. T.

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Topuria, T.

Vivien, L.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Polarization dependence of quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe quantum well planar waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1794–1796 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, X. Le Roux, E. Gatti, S. Edmond, J. Osmond, E. Cassan, and L. Vivien, “Quantum-confined Stark effect measurements in Ge/SiGe quantum-well structures,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2913–2915 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

von Känel, H.

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wada, K.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, P.

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

Wang, X.

Woscholski, R.

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Yu, M.

Zhang, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, N. Izard, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “Room temperature direct gap electroluminescence from Ge/Si0.15Ge0.85 multiple quantum well waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(14), 141106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Köster, K. Kolata, R. Woscholski, C. Lange, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, H. von Känel, and S. Chatterjee, “Giant dynamical Stark shift in germanium quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “C-band side-entry Ge quantum well electroabsorption modulator on SOI operating at 1 volt swing,” Electron. Lett. 44(1), 49–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. K. Schaevitz, E. H. Edwards, J. E. Roth, E. T. Fei, Y. Rong, P. Wahl, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Simple electroabsorption calculator for designing 1310nm and 1550nm modulators using germanium quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.submitted.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Rong, Y. Ge, Y. Huo, M. Fiorentino, M. R. T. Tan, T. I. Kamins, T. J. Ochalski, G. Huyet, and J. S. Harris, “Quantum-confined Stark effect in Ge/SiGe qunatum wells on Si,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 85–92 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Ren, Y. Rong, S. A. Claussen, R. K. Schaevitz, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Ge/SiGe quantum well waveguide modulator monolithically integrated with SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.submitted.

P. Chaisakul, D. Marris-Morini, G. Isella, D. Chrastina, M.-S. Rouifed, X. Le Roux, S. Edmond, E. Cassan, J.-R. Coudevylle, and L. Vivien, “10-Gb/s Ge/SiGe multiple quantum-well waveguide photodetector,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1430–1432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Recent progress in lasers on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 511–517 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Kirchain and L. Kimerling, “A roadmap for nanophotonics,” Nat. Photonics 1(6), 303–305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, and J. S. Harris, “Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium quantum-well structures on silicon,” Nature 437(7063), 1334–1336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Proc. IEEE (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

G. Isella, D. Chrastina, B. Rössner, T. Hackbarth, H.-J. Herzog, U. König, and H. von Känel, “Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for strained Si and Ge heterostructures and devices,” Solid-State Electron. 48(8), 1317–1323 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

J.-M. Fedeli, B. Ben Bakir, L. Grenouillet, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, Silicon Photonics II: Photonics and Electronics Integration (Springer, 2011), pp. 217–249.

Luxtera, Inc., (March 14, 2007), “Integrated Photodetector on Mainstream SOI-CMOS Wafer,” http://www.luxtera.com/2007031345/luxtera-announces-technology-breakthrough-of-germanium-enabled-integrated-photodetector.html .

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic view and (b) scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fabricated device; (c) The fundamental optical mode of the waveguide; (d) Detailed cross section of the fabricated diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Absorption spectra of the 3 µm wide 90 μm long Ge/SiGe MQW waveguide as a function of wavelength and photon energy for reverse bias voltages of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 V corresponding to electric fields of approximately 0, 3, 4.5, 6, and 7.5 x 104 V/cm. Extinction ratio of the waveguide (b) between 0 and 3, 4, 5 V and (c) for a voltage swing of 1 V between 3 and 4 V and of 2 V between 3 and 5 V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Diagram of the system for measuring frequency response of the Ge/SiGe MQW modulator; (b) Normalized optical response at the dc reverse bias of - 4.5 V as a function of the frequency.

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