Abstract

Lensfree in-line holographic microscopy offers sub-micron resolution over a large field-of-view (e.g., ~24 mm2) with a cost-effective and compact design suitable for field use. However, it is limited to relatively low-density samples. To mitigate this limitation, we demonstrate an on-chip imaging approach based on pixel super-resolution and phase recovery, which iterates among multiple lensfree intensity measurements, each having a slightly different sample-to-sensor distance. By digitally aligning and registering these lensfree intensity measurements, phase and amplitude images of dense and connected specimens can be iteratively reconstructed over a large field-of-view of ~24 mm2 without the use of any spatial masks. We demonstrate the success of this multi-height in-line holographic approach by imaging dense Papanicolaou smears (i.e., Pap smears) and blood samples.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (13)

J. Hahn, S. Lim, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, and D. J. Brady, “Video-rate compressive holographic microscopic tomography,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7289–7298 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Waller, M. Tsang, S. Ponda, S. Y. Yang, and G. Barbastathis, “Phase and amplitude imaging from noisy images by Kalman filtering,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2805–2814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Balsam, M. Ossandon, Y. Kostov, H. A. Bruck, and A. Rasooly, “Lensless CCD-based fluorometer using a micromachined optical Söller collimator,” Lab Chip 11(5), 941–949 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Desai, G. Wu, and M. H. Zaman, “Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 11(2), 194–211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lee, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable reflection and transmission microscopy based on lensless holography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2721–2730 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (16)

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zysk, R. W. Schoonover, P. S. Carney, and M. A. Anastasio, “Transport of intensity and spectrum for partially coherent fields,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2239–2241 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Das and C. S. Yelleswarapu, “Dual plane in-line digital holographic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(20), 3426–3428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Waller, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of Intensity phase-amplitude imaging with higher order intensity derivatives,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12552–12561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shi, H. Li, Q. Xu, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman holography for chemically selective single-shot nonscanning 3D imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kikuchi, D. Barada, T. Kiire, and T. Yatagai, “Doppler phase-shifting digital holography and its application to surface shape measurement,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1548–1550 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Poon, “Optical scanning holography - a review of recent progress,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 13(4), 406–415 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Brady, K. Choi, D. L. Marks, R. Horisaki, and S. Lim, “Compressive holography,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13040–13049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

X. Li, J. Tian, T. Nguyen, and W. Shen, “Paper-based microfluidic devices by plasma treatment,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9131–9134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912–914 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, “Invited article: a unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 011301 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Solution to the twin image problem in holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, J. Miao, C. W. Wang, and T. K. Lee, “Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: guided hybrid input-output method,” Phys. Rev. B 76(6), 064113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, W. Xu, S. K. Jericho, P. Klages, M. H. Jericho, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holographic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 836–850 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Wong, “Salivary diagnostics powered by nanotechnologies, proteomics and genomics,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 137(3), 313–321 (2006).
[PubMed]

G. Goddard, J. C. Martin, S. W. Graves, and G. Kaduchak, “Ultrasonic particle-concentration for sheathless focusing of particles for analysis in a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 69A(2), 66–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. Kim, “High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8693–8698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Noort, L. R. V. Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228(1-2), 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, G. Pedrini, W. Osten, and H. J. Tiziani, “Reconstruction of in-line digital holograms from two intensity measurements,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1787–1789 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Allen and M. P. Oxley, “Phase retrieval from series of images obtained by defocus variation,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 65–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Miao, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “The oversampling phasing method,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 56(10), 1312–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vogel, T. Chanb, and R. Plemmons, “Fast algorithms for phase diversity-based blind deconvolution,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 994–1005 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, “Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially-coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(12), 2586–2589 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (3)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1978 (1)

1971 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–246 (1971).

Abdolrahimi, F.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L. J.

L. J. Allen and M. P. Oxley, “Phase retrieval from series of images obtained by defocus variation,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 65–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anastasio, M. A.

Armstrong, D.

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, E. E.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atteberry, S.

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bahrmand, A. R.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balsam, J.

J. Balsam, M. Ossandon, Y. Kostov, H. A. Bruck, and A. Rasooly, “Lensless CCD-based fluorometer using a micromachined optical Söller collimator,” Lab Chip 11(5), 941–949 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barada, D.

Barbastathis, G.

Barnard, K. J.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barone-Nugent, E. D.

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernard, B.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishara, W.

O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bognar, J. G.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bolick, D.

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Braun, P. V.

Breslauer, D. N.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brooker, G.

Bruck, H. A.

J. Balsam, M. Ossandon, Y. Kostov, H. A. Bruck, and A. Rasooly, “Lensless CCD-based fluorometer using a micromachined optical Söller collimator,” Lab Chip 11(5), 941–949 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carney, P. S.

Chan, W. C. W.

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanb, T.

C. R. Vogel, T. Chanb, and R. Plemmons, “Fast algorithms for phase diversity-based blind deconvolution,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 994–1005 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

Chaturvedi, P.

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. C.

C. C. Chen, J. Miao, C. W. Wang, and T. K. Lee, “Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: guided hybrid input-output method,” Phys. Rev. B 76(6), 064113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, K.

Christodoulides, N.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coskun, A. F.

Crimmins, T. R.

Cui, X.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, B.

Davis, G. L.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeModena, J.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Desai, D.

D. Desai, G. Wu, and M. H. Zaman, “Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 11(2), 194–211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dewbrey, E.

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, H.

Dixon, M.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elser, V.

Erlinger, A.

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fateh, A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, S.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fink, H. W.

T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Solution to the twin image problem in holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 233901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fletcher, D. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Floriano, P. N.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fremont-Smith, M.

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Sucerquia, J.

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–246 (1971).

Ghazanfari, M.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillette, M. U.

Giri, S.

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goddard, G.

G. Goddard, J. C. Martin, S. W. Graves, and G. Kaduchak, “Ultrasonic particle-concentration for sheathless focusing of particles for analysis in a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 69A(2), 66–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodey, A. P.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graham, S.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grange, R.

Graves, S. W.

G. Goddard, J. C. Martin, S. W. Graves, and G. Kaduchak, “Ultrasonic particle-concentration for sheathless focusing of particles for analysis in a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 69A(2), 66–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graviss, E. A.

A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenbaum, A.

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffin, B.

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, J.

Hardie, R. C.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauck, T. S.

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooper, N.

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horisaki, R.

Hsiang, M.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, C. L.

Humphry, M. J.

Ingole, N.

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isikman, S. O.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Miao, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “The oversampling phasing method,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 56(10), 1312–1315 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Miao, D. Sayre, and H. N. Chapman, “Phase retrieval from the magnitude of the Fourier transforms of nonperiodic objects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15(6), 1662–1669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schoonover, R. W.

Schulz, T. J.

Sencan, I.

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, S.

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shastri, S.

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, W.

X. Li, J. Tian, T. Nguyen, and W. Shen, “Paper-based microfluidic devices by plasma treatment,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9131–9134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Z.

Shi, K.

K. Shi, H. Li, Q. Xu, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman holography for chemically selective single-shot nonscanning 3D imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikora, U.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D.

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spencer, L.

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stepanek, V.

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternberg, P.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, T. W.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Switz, N. A.

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thelen, B. J.

Thior, I.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

X. Li, J. Tian, T. Nguyen, and W. Shen, “Paper-based microfluidic devices by plasma treatment,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9131–9134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, L.

Tiziani, H. J.

Tsang, M.

Tseng, D.

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unarunotai, S.

Vannahme, C.

Vogel, C. R.

C. R. Vogel, T. Chanb, and R. Plemmons, “Fast algorithms for phase diversity-based blind deconvolution,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 994–1005 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voort, L. R. V.

M. Noort, L. R. V. Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228(1-2), 191–215 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wackerman, C. C.

Walker, B. D.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waller, L.

Wang, C. W.

C. C. Chen, J. Miao, C. W. Wang, and T. K. Lee, “Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: guided hybrid input-output method,” Phys. Rev. B 76(6), 064113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. M.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Watson, E. A.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, D. T.

D. T. Wong, “Salivary diagnostics powered by nanotechnologies, proteomics and genomics,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 137(3), 313–321 (2006).
[PubMed]

Wu, G.

D. Desai, G. Wu, and M. H. Zaman, “Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 11(2), 194–211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

K. Shi, H. Li, Q. Xu, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman holography for chemically selective single-shot nonscanning 3D imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, W.

Yaglidere, O.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lee, O. Yaglidere, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable reflection and transmission microscopy based on lensless holography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(9), 2721–2730 (2011).
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Yang, C.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
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Yang, S. Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yelleswarapu, C. S.

Yu, F. W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

Zaman, M. H.

D. Desai, G. Wu, and M. H. Zaman, “Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 11(2), 194–211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavahir, S.

W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
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Zysk, A. M.

Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (1)

J. Miao, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “The oversampling phasing method,” Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 56(10), 1312–1315 (2000).
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Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

T. S. Hauck, S. Giri, Y. Gao, and W. C. W. Chan, “Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(4-5), 438–448 (2010).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

X. Li, J. Tian, T. Nguyen, and W. Shen, “Paper-based microfluidic devices by plasma treatment,” Anal. Chem. 80(23), 9131–9134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Cancer Cytopathol. (1)

M. Fremont‐Smith, J. Marino, B. Griffin, L. Spencer, and D. Bolick, “Comparison of the SurepathTM liquid‐based Papanicolaou smear with the conventional Papanicolaou smear in a multisite direct‐to‐vial study,” Cancer Cytopathol. 102(5), 269–279 (2004).
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Cytometry A (1)

G. Goddard, J. C. Martin, S. W. Graves, and G. Kaduchak, “Ultrasonic particle-concentration for sheathless focusing of particles for analysis in a flow cytometer,” Cytometry A 69A(2), 66–74 (2006).
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Head Neck Oncol (1)

M. S. Rahman, N. Ingole, D. Roblyer, V. Stepanek, R. Richards-Kortum, A. Gillenwater, S. Shastri, and P. Chaturvedi, “Evaluation of a low-cost, portable imaging system for early detection of oral cancer,” Head Neck Oncol 2(1), 10 (2010).
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IEEE Sig. Process. Mag. (1)

S. Park, M. Park, and M. Kang, “Super-resolution image reconstruction: a technical overview,” IEEE Sig. Process. Mag. 20(3), 21–36 (2003).
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IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, and E. E. Armstrong, “Joint MAP registration and high-resolution image estimation using a sequence of undersampled images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 6(12), 1621–1633 (1997).
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D. T. Wong, “Salivary diagnostics powered by nanotechnologies, proteomics and genomics,” J. Am. Dent. Assoc. 137(3), 313–321 (2006).
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E. D. Barone-Nugent, A. Barty, and K. A. Nugent, “Quantitative phase-amplitude microscopy I: optical microscopy,” J. Microsc. 206(3), 194–203 (2002).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Kor. (1)

T. C. Poon, “Optical scanning holography - a review of recent progress,” J. Opt. Soc. Kor. 13(4), 406–415 (2009).
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Lab Chip (9)

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip 10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Balsam, M. Ossandon, Y. Kostov, H. A. Bruck, and A. Rasooly, “Lensless CCD-based fluorometer using a micromachined optical Söller collimator,” Lab Chip 11(5), 941–949 (2011).
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O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip 10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, O. Yaglidere, T. W. Su, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Cost-effective and compact wide-field fluorescent imaging on a cell-phone,” Lab Chip 11(2), 315–322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip 11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Desai, G. Wu, and M. H. Zaman, “Tackling HIV through robust diagnostics in the developing world: current status and future opportunities,” Lab Chip 11(2), 194–211 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip 10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip 10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Biener, A. Greenbaum, S. O. Isikman, K. Lee, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings,” Lab Chip 11(16), 2738–2743 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Open Microbiol J (1)

W. Kuhn, D. Armstrong, S. Atteberry, E. Dewbrey, D. Smith, and N. Hooper, “Usefulness of the ParalensTM fluorescent microscope adaptor for the identification of mycobacteria in both field and laboratory settings,” Open Microbiol J 4(1), 30–33 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. J. Allen and M. P. Oxley, “Phase retrieval from series of images obtained by defocus variation,” Opt. Commun. 199(1-4), 65–75 (2001).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng. 37(1), 247 (1998).
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Opt. Express (12)

L. Waller, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of Intensity phase-amplitude imaging with higher order intensity derivatives,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12552–12561 (2010).
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C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, B. Khademhosseinieh, and A. Ozcan, “On-chip differential interference contrast microscopy using lensless digital holography,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4717–4726 (2010).
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O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree super-resolution holographic microscopy using wetting films on a chip,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17378–17389 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
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C. Mann, L. Yu, C. M. Lo, and M. Kim, “High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8693–8698 (2005).
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C. L. Hsieh, R. Grange, Y. Pu, and D. Psaltis, “Three-dimensional harmonic holographic microcopy using nanoparticles as probes for cell imaging,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2880–2891 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Brady, K. Choi, D. L. Marks, R. Horisaki, and S. Lim, “Compressive holography,” Opt. Express 17(15), 13040–13049 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, S. Lim, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, and D. J. Brady, “Video-rate compressive holographic microscopic tomography,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7289–7298 (2011).
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L. Waller, M. Tsang, S. Ponda, S. Y. Yang, and G. Barbastathis, “Phase and amplitude imaging from noisy images by Kalman filtering,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2805–2814 (2011).
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Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
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Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Optik (Stuttg.) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik (Stuttg.) 35, 237–246 (1971).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Phase retrieval of arbitrary complex-valued fields through aperture-plane modulation,” Phys. Rev. A 75(4), 043805 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. C. Chen, J. Miao, C. W. Wang, and T. K. Lee, “Application of optimization technique to noncrystalline x-ray diffraction microscopy: guided hybrid input-output method,” Phys. Rev. B 76(6), 064113 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

D. Paganin and K. A. Nugent, “Noninterferometric phase imaging with partially-coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(12), 2586–2589 (1998).
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T. Latychevskaia and H. W. Fink, “Solution to the twin image problem in holography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(23), 233901 (2007).
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K. Shi, H. Li, Q. Xu, D. Psaltis, and Z. Liu, “Coherent anti-Stokes Raman holography for chemically selective single-shot nonscanning 3D imaging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(9), 093902 (2010).
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H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, “Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 023903 (2004).
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W. R. Rodriguez, N. Christodoulides, P. N. Floriano, S. Graham, S. Mohanty, M. Dixon, M. Hsiang, T. Peter, S. Zavahir, I. Thior, D. Romanovicz, B. Bernard, A. P. Goodey, B. D. Walker, and J. T. McDevitt, “A microchip CD4 counting method for HIV monitoring in resource-poor settings,” PLoS Med. 2(7), e182 (2005).
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PLoS ONE (2)

D. N. Breslauer, R. N. Maamari, N. A. Switz, W. A. Lam, and D. A. Fletcher, “Mobile phone based clinical microscopy for global health applications,” PLoS ONE 4(7), e6320 (2009).
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A. R. Miller, G. L. Davis, Z. M. Oden, M. R. Razavi, A. Fateh, M. Ghazanfari, F. Abdolrahimi, S. Poorazar, F. Sakhaie, R. J. Olsen, A. R. Bahrmand, M. C. Pierce, E. A. Graviss, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Portable, battery-operated, low-cost, bright field and fluorescence microscope,” PLoS ONE 5(8), e11890 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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W. Xu, M. H. Jericho, I. A. Meinertzhagen, and H. J. Kreuzer, “Digital in-line holography for biological applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98(20), 11301–11305 (2001).
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C. R. Vogel, T. Chanb, and R. Plemmons, “Fast algorithms for phase diversity-based blind deconvolution,” Proc. SPIE 3353, 994–1005 (1998).
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S. Marchesini, “Invited article: a unified evaluation of iterative projection algorithms for phase retrieval,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(1), 011301 (2007).
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Sol. Phys. (1)

M. Noort, L. R. V. Voort, and M. G. Löfdahl, “Solar image restoration by use of multi-frame blind de-convolution with multiple objects and phase diversity,” Sol. Phys. 228(1-2), 191–215 (2005).
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J. L. Pech-Pacheco, G. Cristóbal, J. Chamorro-Martínez, and J. Fernández-Valdivia, “Diatom autofocusing in brightfield microscopy: a comparative study,” in Proceedings of 15th International Conference On Pattern Recognition, IEEE Computer Society, 2000 pp. 314–317.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the multi-height pixel super-resolution based lensfree on-chip imaging set-up. A partially-coherent source (emanating from a 0.1 mm core fiber-optic cable) creates lensfree in-line holograms of the samples, which are sampled using a sensor-array. In order to reconstruct images of dense samples, multiple intensity measurements at different Z2-distances (or heights) are captured (see the upper right inset). To reduce the effective pixel-size, a pixel-super resolution algorithm is utilized by source-shifting (see the upper left inset). Since Z1 >> Z2 the entire active area of the sensor-array becomes our imaging FOV (e.g., ~24 mm2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A schematic portraying the image processing that is conducted after acquiring M LR lensfree image stacks at different Z2-distances. Each image stack is used to create one super-resolved lensfree hologram. These high-resolution holograms are then registered to each other and multi-height iterative phase recovery algorithm is applied. After 1-70 iterations, amplitude and phase images of dense specimens can be reconstructed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Full FOV, LR hologram. (b) Multi-height based PSR lensfree amplitude image of a dense RBC smear is shown. This lensfree image was reconstructed using five different heights (λ = 550nm). The FOV corresponds to the green dashed rectangular in (a). (c) A 10 × objective lens (0.25NA) microscope image is provided for comparison. (d) A single height back propagated PSR amplitude image. The image FOV corresponds to the dashed blue rectangular in (b) and (c). (e) Multi-height based PSR lensfree amplitude image acquired using five different heights is shown. This FOV corresponds to the same FOV as in (d). (f) A 20 × objective lens (0.4 NA) microscope image is also provided for comparison purposes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Multi-height based PSR lensfree phase image of a Pap test is shown. This image was reconstructed using five heights. 36 iterations were used during phase recovery (λ = 550nm). (b) Single height back propagated PSR phase image is shown. (c) and (d) are multi-height based PSR lensfree amplitude and phase images, respectively, of the green dashed rectangle shown in (a). The absorbing nuclei of the cells are clearly visible in the amplitude images, while the cell’s boundaries are more visible in the phase image. The corresponding 40x (0.65NA) microscope image is provided for comparison in (e). (f) and (g) are the corresponding single height based back propagated phase and amplitude images respectively. (h) and (i) are multi-height based PSR lensfree amplitude and phase images, respectively, of the blue dashed rectangle in (a). The corresponding 40 × (0.65NA) microscope image is also provided for comparison in (j). (k) and (l) are the corresponding single height based back propagated phase and amplitude images respectively. All the phase images in the figure are wrapped since we did not employ phase unwrapping algorithms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pap smear reconstruction results acquired for different number of lensfree diffraction intensities. (a) Back propagated image from one PSR lensfree hologram. (b), (c), (d) and (e) Multi-height based PSR lensfree phase images from two, three, four and five heights, respectively (same color bar as in (a)). For fair comparison 144 Fourier transform pairs were used in each reconstruction case. (f) 10 × objective lens (0.25NA) microscope image is provided for comparison purposes. The cell’s boundaries are more visible in our phase images, while the absorbing nuclei of the cells are better visualized in our amplitude images as illustrated in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Adding intensity measurements from different Z2 distances does not degrade the image resolution. An important question that we aimed to address with this additional experiment was whether or not the digital cross registration process among different height lensfree holograms results in spatial smearing of our reconstructed images. Therefore we compared the imaging performance of our multi-height reconstruction results against a single back-propagated super resolved hologram. (a) Single height based back propagated PSR amplitude image. (b), (c), (d) and (e) are multi-height based PSR lensfree amplitude images, where two, three, four and five different heights were used in the reconstruction process, respectively (λ = 490nm). For fair comparison the number of Fourier transform pairs was equal in each case, such that each reconstruction used different number of iterations. In all of these reconstructed images, the letters “U” and “C”, with a spacing of ~1 µm, are clearly separated. (f) Microscope comparison image of the same sample (40 × objective lens; 0.65 NA).

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