Abstract

The authors demonstrated an efficient color conversion layer (CCL) by using nanosphere arrays in down-converted white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs). The introduced periodical nanospheres not only helped extract the confined light in devices, but also increased the effective light path to achieve high-efficiency color conversion. By applying a CCL with red phosphor on a 400-nm-period nanosphere array, we achieved 137% color conversion ratio for blue OLEDs, which was 2.68 times higher than conventional flat CCL. The resulting luminous efficiency of WOLEDs with patterned CCLs (20.97 cd/A, 1000 cd/m2) was two times higher than the efficiency of the flat device (10.26 cd/A, 1000 cd/m2).

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  1. J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, H. K. Park, H. K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Highly efficient phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes with moderate microcavity and light-recycling filters,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1099–1104 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. B. Yuan, S. Li, Z. Wang, H. T. Xu, and X. Zhou, “White organic light-emitting diodes combining vacuum deposited blue electrophosphorescent devices with red surface color conversion layers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1577–1582 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. Ji, L. Zhang, R. Gao, L. Zhang, W. Xie, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with down-conversion phosphors: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15489–15494 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Liu, S.-W. Liu, H. Liang, C.-W. Chu, and P.-K. Wei, “Efficiency enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting devices by using antireflection nanopillars,” Opt. Express 19(S3Suppl 3), A295–A302 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Liu, S.-W. Liu, H. Liang, C.-W. Chu, and P.-K. Wei, “Efficiency enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting devices by using antireflection nanopillars,” Opt. Express 19(S3Suppl 3), A295–A302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Cho, J. R. Oh, H. K. Park, H. K. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, J.-G. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Highly efficient phosphor-converted white organic light-emitting diodes with moderate microcavity and light-recycling filters,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1099–1104 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. B. Yuan, S. Li, Z. Wang, H. T. Xu, and X. Zhou, “White organic light-emitting diodes combining vacuum deposited blue electrophosphorescent devices with red surface color conversion layers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1577–1582 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ji, L. Zhang, R. Gao, L. Zhang, W. Xie, H. Zhang, and B. Li, “Top-emitting white organic light-emitting devices with down-conversion phosphors: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15489–15494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bera, D.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. H.

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. H.

Choi, J.-M.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choong, V. E.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choong, V.-E.

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chopra, N.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choulis, S. A.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-W.

Cody, G. D.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Duggal, A. R.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eom, S.-H.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, T.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foust, D. F.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R.

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, G.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heller, C. M.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y.-H.

Holloway, P.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hongawa, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jermann, F.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

Koh, T.-W.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krummacher, B.

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-G.

Lee, K.-L.

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-C.

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

Lei, G.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, B.

Li, F.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C. C.

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.-C.

Liu, S.-W.

Lu, Y. J.

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, S.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mathai, M. K.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. R.

Okuyama, K.

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

Parthasarathy, G.

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiang, J. J.

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

So, F.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Yuan, S. Li, Z. Wang, H. T. Xu, and X. Zhou, “White organic light-emitting diodes combining vacuum deposited blue electrophosphorescent devices with red surface color conversion layers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1577–1582 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P.-K.

Y.-H. Ho, C.-C. Liu, S.-W. Liu, H. Liang, C.-W. Chu, and P.-K. Wei, “Efficiency enhancement of flexible organic light-emitting devices by using antireflection nanopillars,” Opt. Express 19(S3Suppl 3), A295–A302 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W.

Xu, H. T.

Xu, Q.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xue, J.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, Y. H.

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, H.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Y. B.

Zachau, M.

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zheng, Y.

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Zhu, S.

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

J. Lee, N. Chopra, D. Bera, S. Maslov, S.-H. Eom, Y. Zheng, P. Holloway, J. Xue, and F. So, “Down-conversion white organic light-emitting diodes using microcavity structure,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(2), 174–178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (4)

T.-W. Koh, J.-M. Choi, S. Lee, and S. Yoo, “Optical outcoupling enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes: highly conductive polymer as a low-index layer on microstructured ITO electrodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(16), 1849–1853 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, G. Li, E. Wu, Q. Xu, and Y. Yang, “Achieving high-efficiency polymer white-light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(1), 114–117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade and S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Parthasarathy, G. Gu, and S. R. Forrest, “A full-color transparent metal-free stacked organic light emitting device with simplified pixel biasing,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 11(11), 907–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

B. C. Krummacher, V. E. Choong, M. K. Mathai, S. A. Choulis, F. So, F. Jermann, T. Fiedler, and M. Zachau, “Highly efficient white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kido, K. Hongawa, K. Okuyama, and K. Nagai, “White light‐emitting organic electroluminescent devices using the poly(N‐vinylcarbazole) emitter layer doped with three fluorescent dyes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(7), 815–817 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Duggal, J. J. Shiang, C. M. Heller, and D. F. Foust, “Organic light-emitting devices for illumination quality white light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3470 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Lei, L. Wang, and Y. Qiu, “Blue phosphorescent dye as sensitizer and emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5403–5405 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, F. Li, J. Zhang, C. Wang, S. Zhu, H. Yu, Z. Wang, and B. Yang, “Improved light extraction efficiency of white organic light-emitting devices by biomimetic antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(15), 153305 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Hsu, M.-C. Lee, K.-L. Lee, and P.-K. Wei, “Extraction enhancement in organic light emitting devices by using metallic nanowire arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Mathai, V.-E. Choong, S. A. Choulis, B. Krummacher, and F. So, “Highly efficient solution processed blue organic electrophosphorescence with 14 lm/W luminous efficacy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 243512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, “Intensity enhancement in textured optical sheets for solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 29(2), 300–305 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Tech. (1)

C. H. Chang, Y. J. Lu, C. C. Liu, Y. H. Yeh, and C. C. Wu, “Efficient White OLEDs Employing Phosphorescent Sensitization,” J. Disp. Tech. 3(2), 193–199 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “White organic light-emitting diodes with fluorescent tube efficiency,” Nature 459(7244), 234–238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fabrication process of two-dimensional nanospheres patterned color conversion layer: (Step 1) a monolayer of polystyrene nanospheres was formed on the clean polycarbonate substrate. (Step 2) reduced the nanospheres by oxygen plasma etching and stuck them on the substrate surface. (Step 3) MEH-PPV was spun-coated on the patterned PC substrate. (Step 4) after the thermal curing process, the color conversion layer was attached to the blue device with index matching oil. (b) SEM images of top (up) and cross-sectional (down) views of the reduced nanosphere monolayer with a period of 600nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Device structure of blue phosphorescent device covered with color conversion layer. (b) Normalized EL spectrum of a blue OLED and absorption/PL spectra of the color conversion layer (MEH-PPV). (c) The photographs of WOLEDs without (flat CCL) and with (patterned CCL) the nanosphere array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The illustration of extraction enhancement for the patterned CCLs. The blue line indicated the obliquely incident light. Light scattering to the air was increased by the nanosphere arrays. In addition, part of reflected light was confined in the CCL layer due to wave guiding effect. It increased the light path and the excitation possibility of red photons. The red line shows the red photons. The nanosphere array also helped coupling red light to the air. (b) Electric field distribution of the patterned CCL with periods of 400 and 800 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Angular resolved absorption spectra in the patterned CCL. (b) Calculated relative red emission intensity of the patterned CCL with periods from 400 to 800 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL spectra (a) and CIE coordinates (b) of the blue-conversion-white OLED with patterned CCL device operated with constant injection current.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Color conversion ratio and luminous enhancement ratio of the patterned color conversion layer with different periodical nanosphere monolayers (conversion ratio of flat CCL is 0.5123).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical mechanisms of light extraction and color conversion of the down-converted white OLED

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Current efficiencies of down-conversion white devices with and without nanospheres (period: 400 nm) pattern under different operating brightness.

Equations (1)

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Color conversion ratio= genertaion of red photons decrease of blue photons = η c1 B 0 η ext0 B 0 η ext1 B 0 (for flat CCL) = η c2 B 0 η ext0 B 0 η ext2 B 0 (for patterned CCL)

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