Abstract

We present high-speed operation of pin-diode-based silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators that have side-wall gratings on both sides of the waveguide core. The use of pre-emphasis signals generated with a finite impulse response digital filter was examined in the frequency domain to show how the filter works for different filter parameter sets. In large signal modulation experiments, VπL as low as 0.29 V·cm was obtained at 12.5 Gb/s using a fabricated modulator and the pre-emphasis technique. Operation of up to 25-Gb/s is possible using basically the same driving configurations.

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (7)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-W. Chen, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Forty Gb/s hybrid silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator with low chirp,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1455–1460 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xin, C. E. Png, S. T. Lim, V. Dixit, and A. J. Danner, “A high speed electro-optic phase shifter based on a polymer-infiltrated P-S-N diode capacitor,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14354–14369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J. Witzens, S. Huang, J. Luo, S. Benight, P. Sullivan, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and M. Hochberg, “Demonstration of a low V π L modulator with GHz bandwidth based on electro-optic polymer-clad silicon slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 15618–15623 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baba, T.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S.

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bojko, R.

Bowers, J. E.

Brimont, A.

Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L.

Danner, A. J.

Diederich, F.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dixit, V.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fong, J.

Fournier, M.

Franck, T.

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Geis, M. W.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Grein, M. E.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hatori, N.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, J.

Hochberg, M.

Hodge, D.

Hong, C.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Huang, S.

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ishikura, N.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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Jen, A.

Kärtner, F. X.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
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Kash, J. A.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
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Keil, U.

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Koos, C.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuchta, D. M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
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Kung, C.-C.

Kurahashi, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
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Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lim, S. T.

Liow, T.-Y.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Luo, J.

Luo, Y.

Lyszczarz, T. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

Michel, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
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Morse, M.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

Pan, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S. S.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peters, J. D.

Png, C. E.

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A. T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Rasras, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Ritter, M. B.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, Y.

Samara-Rubio, D.

Sanchis, P.

Schmidt, B.

Scimeca, M. L.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon organic hybrid technology-a platform for practical nonlinear optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shinkawa, M.

Shubin, I.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorace, C. M.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

Trotter, D. C.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

Wong, C. W.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xin, M.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamamoto, T.

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Yoon, J. U.

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W. A.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

S. Akiyama, T. Kurahashi, T. Baba, N. Hatori, T. Usuki, and T. Yamamoto, “A 1V peak-to-peak driven 10-Gbps slow-light silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator using cascaded ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(7), 072202 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. A. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. B. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. J. Spector, C. M. Sorace, M. W. Geis, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, T. M. Lyszczarz, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Operation and optimization of silicon-diode-based optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 165–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (11)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) with side-wall grating waveguide. (a) Top view. (b) Close-up of circled area in (a).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of fabricated waveguide with side-wall grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectrum of fabricated MZM and reference waveguide. MZM had same structure shown in Fig. 1, while reference waveguide did not have MMI couplers, gratings, dopants, or electrodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmissions of side-wall grating waveguides with dopants and electrodes for different active lengths at 1550 nm. We measured two waveguides for each length.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DC response of fabricated MZM with active length of 250 μm when forward bias voltage is applied to one of its two diodes. Red solid and broken lines are extinction curves detected from bar- and cross- output ports, respectively. Initial phase difference was eliminated by biasing another diode that was not driven. Blue line shows forward current for applied voltage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Small-signal modulation experiment. (a) Experimental setup. (b) Frequency response of fabricated MZM and FIR digital filter. Black solid line is measured response of modulator. Red lines are calculated response of FIR filter of Fig. 6 (b) for three different parameter sets, as shown in inset. (c) Block diagram of FIR-based pre-emphasis filter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental setup for high-speed large-signal modulation experiments. Dotted area provides signals, which are equivalent to outputs from FIR digital filter shown in Fig. 6(c) obtained by inputting standard NRZ signals.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electrical and optical waveforms at 12.5 Gb/s using one-bit delay in digital filter. (a) and (b) electrical DATA and xDATA signals from PPG in NRZ format, respectively. (c) Pre-emphasis signal created by combining data of (a) and (b). (a)-(c) show same part in PRBS of 27-1. (d) 12.5-Gb/s optical waveform obtained from bar and cross port of MZM, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electrical and optical waveforms at 12.5 Gb/s using half-bit delay in digital filter. (a) Electrical input waveform. (b) and (c) optical waveforms at 12.5 Gb/s using half-bit delay in digital filter obtained from bar and cross ports of MZM, respectively. Two driving signals with amplitude of 2.37 Vpp, were used to operate in push-pull configuration. Forward DC bias voltage of 0.86 V was applied to diode of two arms of MZM.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Optical waveforms faster than 12.5 Gb/s. (a) 20-Gb/s optical eye diagram. (b) 25-Gb/s optical eye diagram.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performances Comparison of Phase Shifter Based on FCP Effect in Silicon

Equations (3)

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T(ω)= n=0 N h n e iω( nτ )
ER[dB]=20 log 10 | 1+ e i( π 2 Δφ 2 ) 1+ e i( π 2 + Δφ 2 ) |,
P AC = 2 T 0 T { V( t ) } 2 R dt ,

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