Abstract

We present an experimental method to characterize multi-photon detectors with a small overall detection efficiency. We do this by separating the nonlinear action of the multiphoton detection event from linear losses in the detector. Such a characterization is a necessary step for quantum information protocols with single and multiphoton detectors and can provide quantitative information to understand the underlying physics of a given detector. This characterization is applied to a superconducting multiphoton nanodetector, consisting of an NbN nanowire with a bowtie-shaped subwavelength constriction. Depending on the bias current, this detector has regimes with single and multiphoton sensitivity. We present the first full experimental characterization of such a detector.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  2. A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).
  3. J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).
  4. M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in Single Photon Detection : Modeling and Quantum Tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 21305 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  5. M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).
  6. D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  7. G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
  8. I. Afek, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light,” Science 328, 879–81 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  9. A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).
  10. A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).
  11. J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).
  12. G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).
  13. T. Amri, “Quantum Behavior of Measurement Apparatus,” arXiv:1001.3032v2 (2011).
  14. R. J. Barlow, Statistics (Wiley, 1989).
  15. Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic quantum optics (Wiley, 1999).
  16. D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006)
    [PubMed]
  17. G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).
  18. A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).
  19. M. K. Akhlaghi and A. H. Majedi, “Semiempirical Modeling of Dark Count Rate and Quantum Efficiency of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE T. Appl. Supercon. 19, 361–366 (2009).
  20. A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).
  21. O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Experimental multi-photon-resolving detector using a single avalanche photodiode,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 11 (2003).
  22. P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).
  23. E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

I. Afek, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light,” Science 328, 879–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

M. K. Akhlaghi and A. H. Majedi, “Semiempirical Modeling of Dark Count Rate and Quantum Efficiency of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE T. Appl. Supercon. 19, 361–366 (2009).

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

2007 (2)

P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

2006 (1)

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006)
[PubMed]

2005 (2)

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

2003 (1)

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Experimental multi-photon-resolving detector using a single avalanche photodiode,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 11 (2003).

2001 (2)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[PubMed]

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Achilles, D.

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006)
[PubMed]

Afek, I.

I. Afek, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light,” Science 328, 879–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

Akhlaghi, M. K.

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in Single Photon Detection : Modeling and Quantum Tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 21305 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. K. Akhlaghi and A. H. Majedi, “Semiempirical Modeling of Dark Count Rate and Quantum Efficiency of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE T. Appl. Supercon. 19, 361–366 (2009).

Ambar, O.

I. Afek, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light,” Science 328, 879–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

Amri, T.

T. Amri, “Quantum Behavior of Measurement Apparatus,” arXiv:1001.3032v2 (2011).

Anant, V.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Andreoni, A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

Barlow, R. J.

R. J. Barlow, Statistics (Wiley, 1989).

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Berggren, K. K.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Bitauld, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Bondani, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

Brida, G.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Ciavarella, L.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Coldenstrodt-Ronge, H.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Dauler, E. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Degiovanni, I. P.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Divochiy, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Eisert, J.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Engel, A.

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

Feito, A.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Fiore, A.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Gaggero, A.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Genovese, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Gippius, N. A.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

Gol’tsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Goltsman, G. N.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Gramegna, M.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

Haderka, O.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Experimental multi-photon-resolving detector using a single avalanche photodiode,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 11 (2003).

Hamar, M.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Experimental multi-photon-resolving detector using a single avalanche photodiode,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 11 (2003).

Hamhuis, G. J.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Hamilton, S. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

Hofherr, M.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

Hübers, H.-W.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

Huntington, E. H.

P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).

Il’in, K.

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

Ilin, K.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

Imamoglu, A.

Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic quantum optics (Wiley, 1999).

Kaurova, N.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Knill, E.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[PubMed]

Korneev, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Laflamme, R.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Leoni, R.

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Lévy, F.

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Lolli, L.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Lundeen, J. S.

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in Single Photon Detection : Modeling and Quantum Tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 21305 (2011).
[PubMed]

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Majedi, A. H.

M. K. Akhlaghi, A. H. Majedi, and J. S. Lundeen, “Nonlinearity in Single Photon Detection : Modeling and Quantum Tomography,” Opt. Express 19, 21305 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. K. Akhlaghi and A. H. Majedi, “Semiempirical Modeling of Dark Count Rate and Quantum Efficiency of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors,” IEEE T. Appl. Supercon. 19, 361–366 (2009).

Marsili, F.

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Mattioli, F.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Mauerer, W.

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

Milburn, G. J.

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[PubMed]

Minaeva, O.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Mingolla, G.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Nejad, S. J.

D. Bitauld, F. Marsili, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. J. Nejad, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Nanoscale optical detector with single-photon and multiphoton sensitivity,” Nano Lett. 10, 2977–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Noetzel, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Okunev, O.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Paris, M. G. A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Perina, J.

O. Haderka, M. Hamar, and J. Perina, “Experimental multi-photon-resolving detector using a single avalanche photodiode,” Eur. Phys. J. D 28, 11 (2003).

Piacentini, F.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Plenio, M. B.

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Pregnell, K. L.

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

Rajteri, M.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Rall, D.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

Ralph, T. C.

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).

Robinson, B. S.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

Rohde, P. P.

P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).

Rosfjord, K. M.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Rossi, A.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

Sahin, D.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Sanjines, R.

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Seleznev, V.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Phot. 2, 302–306 (2008).

Semenov, A.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Siegel, M.

M. Hofherr, D. Rall, K. Ilin, M. Siegel, A. Semenov, H.-W. Hübers, and N. A. Gippius, “Intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with different thicknesses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 014507 (2010).

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

Silberberg, Y.

I. Afek, O. Ambar, and Y. Silberberg, “High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light,” Science 328, 879–81 (2010).
[PubMed]

Silberhorn, C.

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006)
[PubMed]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Smith, B. J.

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Taralli, E.

G. Brida, L. Ciavarella, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, L. Lolli, G. Mingolla, F. Piacentini, M. Rajteri, E. Taralli, and M. G. A. Paris, “Full quantum characterization of superconducting photon counters” arXiv: 1103.2991 (2011).

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Voronov, B. M.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Walmsley, I. A.

A. Feito, J. S. Lundeen, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring measurement: theory and practice,” New J. Phys. 11, 093038 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, K. L. Pregnell, A. Feito, B. J. Smith, W. Mauerer, C. Silberhorn, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “A proposed testbed for detector tomography,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 432 (2009).

J. S. Lundeen, A. Feito, H. Coldenstrodt-Ronge, K. L. Pregnell, C. Silberhorn, T. C. Ralph, J. Eisert, M. B. Plenio, and I. A. Walmsley, “Tomography of quantum detectors,” Nat. Phys. 5, 27–30 (2008).

D. Achilles, C. Silberhorn, and I. A. Walmsley, “Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 043602 (2006)
[PubMed]

Webb, J. G.

P. P. Rohde, J. G. Webb, E. H. Huntington, and T. C. Ralph, “Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors,” New J. Phys. 9, 233–233 (2007).

Williams, C.

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and A. Imamoglu, Mesoscopic quantum optics (Wiley, 1999).

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Optic. 56, 13 (2008).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

Zambra, G.

G. Zambra, A. Andreoni, M. Bondani, M. Gramegna, M. Genovese, G. Brida, A. Rossi, and M. G. A. Paris, “Experimental reconstruction of photon statistics without photon counting,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 6 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. N. Goltsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Goltsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 101110 (2007).

A. Gaggero, S. J. Nejad, F. Marsili, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, D. Bitauld, D. Sahin, G. J. Hamhuis, R. Noetzel, R. Sanjines, and A. Fiore, “Nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors on GaAs for integrated quantum photonic applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 151108 (2010).

Eur. Phys. J. B (1)

A. Semenov, A. Engel, H.-W. Hübers, K. Il’in, and M. Siegel, “Spectral cut-off in the efficiency of the resistive state formation caused by absorption of a single-photon in current-carrying superconducting nano-strips,” Eur. Phys. J. B 47, 495–501 (2005).

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM image of the NbN nanodetector. The smooth gray area is the NbN, with the constriction in the middle. From this image, the width of the constriction was estimated to be 150 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measurement of the NbN nanodetector count rate as function of input power at Ib = 20 μA, Ib = 17 μA and Ib = 14 μA, fitted with the EPDC model (Eq. 1). The black squares represents the data points with error bars, the other lines represent fits, with the number of free parameters represented by the color of the line (see legend). Note that many of these lines overlap with each other and with the data. Insert: reduced χ2 of the fits as a function of number of parameters. For Ib = 14μA we have omitted the case i = 1, where χ reduced 2 > 10 4. The arrows indicate the best fit. Note that in all three cases there are multiple fits which have similar reduced χ2, we reject the ones with superfluous free parameters for physical reasons.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

EPDC parameters and linear detection efficiency as function of bias current. This figure was obtained by repeatedly applying the method outlined in Section IV at various bias currents. The three dashed lines indicate the bias currents from Fig 3.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R click = Tr ( Π click ρ )
Π click = i = 0 p i | i > < i | ,
R click ( N ) = i = 0 p i c i ( N ) ,
R click ( N ) = 1 R no click ( N )
= 1 e N i = 0 ( 1 p i ) N i i ! ,
R click , EPDC ( N ) = 1 e η N i = 0 ( 1 p i ) ( η N ) i i ! ,

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