Abstract

We demonstrate 1 GHz count rate photon detection with photon number resolution by using a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) and performing baseline correction. A bare MPPC chip mounted on a high-frequency circuit board is employed to increase response speed. The photon number resolving capability is investigated at high repetition rates. This capability remains at a repetition rate of 1 GHz and at rates as high as an average of 2.6 photons detected per optical pulse. The photon detection efficiencies are 16% at λ = 450 nm and 4.5% at λ = 775 nm with a dark count rate of 270 kcps and an afterpulse probability of 0.007.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2011

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

M. Akiba, K. Tsujino, K. Sato, and M. Sasaki, “Multipixel silicon avalanche photodiode with ultralow dark count rate at liquid nitrogen temperature,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16885–16897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Hadfield, “A single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Piemonte, “A new Silicon Photomultiplier structure for blue light detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 568(1), 224–232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, M.

Akindinov, A.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Akindinov, A. V.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bacchetta, N.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barral, J.

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benkhaoul, M.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bisello, D.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bitauld, D.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bondarenko, G.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breitenmoser, M.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broz, F.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buono, S.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buzhan, P.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Catuozzo, M.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dendooven, P.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Desforges, I.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Divochiy, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolgoshein, B.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisaman, M. D.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eraerds, P.

Fan, J.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Filatov, L.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fiore, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaggero, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

Gol’tsman, G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golovin, V.

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golovin, V. M.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gotra, Y.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grigoriev, E. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guschin, E.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

R. H. Hadfield, “A single-photon detectors for optical quantum information applications,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 696–705 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Han, D.

Hose, J.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

Huizenga, J.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ilyin, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kantserov, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaplin, V.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Karakash, A.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaurova, N.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kayumov, F.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klanner, R.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Klemin, S.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Korneev, A.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lacaita, A.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagoudakis, K. G.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Legré, M.

Leoni, R.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lévy, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, K.

Löhner, H.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, E.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, G.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malakhov, N.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martemianov, A. N.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mattioli, F.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minaeva, O.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mirzoyan, R.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Musienko, Y.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Niclass, C.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolosi, P.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Otte, A. N.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paccagnella, A.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pace, E.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pantano, D.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Piemonte, C.

C. Piemonte, “A new Silicon Photomultiplier structure for blue light detection,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 568(1), 224–232 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pokachalov, V.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polozov, P. A.

A. V. Akindinov, A. N. Martemianov, P. A. Polozov, V. M. Golovin, and E. A. Grigoriev, “New results on MRS APDs,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polyakov, S. V.

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited review article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82(7), 071101 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popova, E.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R. H.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, R.

E. Grigoriev, A. Akindinov, M. Breitenmoser, S. Buono, E. Charbon, C. Niclass, I. Desforges, and R. Rocca, “Silicon photomultipliers and their bio-medical applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 571(1-2), 130–133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

Sadygov, Z.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
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Sasaki, M.

Sato, K.

Saveliev, V.

V. Golovin and V. Saveliev, “Novel type of avalanche photodetector with Geiger mode operation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 518(1-2), 560–564 (2004).
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Schaart, D. R.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, S.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seleznev, V.

A. Divochiy, F. Marsili, D. Bitauld, A. Gaggero, R. Leoni, F. Mattioli, A. Korneev, V. Seleznev, N. Kaurova, O. Minaeva, G. Gol’tsman, K. G. Lagoudakis, M. Benkhaoul, F. Lévy, and A. Fiore, “Superconducting nanowire photon-number-resolving detector at telecommunication wavelengths,” Nat. Photonics 2(5), 302–306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shields, A. J.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, K.

G. Bondarenko, P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, V. Golovin, E. Guschin, A. Ilyin, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, R. Klanner, V. Pokachalov, E. Popova, and K. Smirnov, “Limited Geiger-mode microcell silicon photodiode: new results,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 442(1-3), 187–192 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, S.

P. Buzhan, B. Dolgoshein, L. Filatov, A. Ilyin, V. Kantserov, V. Kaplin, A. Karakash, F. Kayumov, S. Klemin, E. Popova, and S. Smirnov, “Silicon photomultiplier and its possible application,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 504(1-3), 48–52 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

Struder, L. W. J.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teshima, M.

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, J. Barral, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, and M. Teshima, “A test of silicon photomultipliers as readout for PET,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 545(3), 705–715 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsujino, K.

van Dam, H. T.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vinke, R.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Won, E.

Yang, R.

Yoon, T. H.

Yuan, Z. L.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zappa, F.

N. Bacchetta, D. Bisello, F. Broz, M. Catuozzo, Y. Gotra, E. Guschin, A. Lacaita, N. Malakhov, Y. Musienko, P. Nicolosi, A. Paccagnella, E. Pace, D. Pantano, Z. Sadygov, P. Villoresi, and F. Zappa, “MRS detectors with high gain for registration of weak visible and UV light fluxes,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 387(1-2), 225–230 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

Zhang, C.

Zhang, G.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Bennett, and A. J. Shields, “Ultrashort dead time of photon-counting InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(23), 231113 (2009).
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IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

S. Seifert, H. T. van Dam, J. Huizenga, R. Vinke, P. Dendooven, H. Löhner, and D. R. Schaart, “Simulation of Silicon Photomultiplier Signals,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 56(6), 3726–3733 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Otte, B. Dolgoshein, J. Hose, S. Klemin, E. Lorenz, G. Lutz, R. Mirzoyan, E. Popova, R. H. Richter, L. W. J. Struder, and M. Teshima, “Prospects of Using Silicon Photomultipliers for the Astroparticle Physics Experiments EUSO and MAGIC,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 53(2), 636–640 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the setup for measurements of the high count rate characteristics of the MPPC. A bare MPPC chip with readout circuitry was placed on a high-frequency printed circuit board. An optical intensity modulator and a second harmonic generator were used to convert 1550 nm continuous-wave light from a laser diode into the high repetition-rate, 775 nm pulse train that was used in these measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Averaged pulse profile for single photon events. The signal pulses with pulse height between 80 and 200 mV were considered as single photon events. The averaging was performed by an off-line analysis of the signals acquired by the oscilloscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic response for 0.67 GHz repetition-rate optical pulses (black line) and a depiction of the key values used in our method to determine the pulse height by using second-order finite differences.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output signals after performing the second-order finite difference calculation. The differentiation time is 0.5 ns for all repetition rates. A signal pulse height can be obtained from the peak value of a pulse. The average number of photons detected per optical pulse was calculated from the pulse height distributions in Fig. 5 to be approximately 2.6.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse height distributions after performing the second-order finite difference calculation on data sets from different repetition rates. The average number of photons detected for each distribution is approximately 2.6. The pulse heights have offsets due to the baseline correction. The offset values at the repetition rates are different. The pulse height distributions are shifted horizontally by an amount within 20 mV so that the pulse height distribution for no optical signal has a peak at zero volts (corresponding to zero photons). For distributions that have no well-defined peak at a pulse height of zero, the distributions are shifted so that other peaks of the distributions correspond to peaks of distributions with better-defined 0 V peaks. All the pulse height distributions described below are also shifted by an amount within 20 mV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pulse height distributions after performing the second-order finite difference calculation at different repetition rates. The average number of detected photons for each distribution is approximately 1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) A schematic of the response for 1 GHz repetition-rate optical pulses (black line) and the framework for the method to correct the signal pulse height. The red and blue lines show the straight line fits in the absence of jitter or other noise. The increase in the slopes of the straight line fits due to the timing jitter is also shown (solid green and orange lines). (b), (c) Schematics illustrating the increase in slopes due to (b) a noise pulse and (c) an increase in rise time (green lines).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Timing jitter for single-photon detection. The timing jitter was obtained by measuring the time differences between the timing signal from the pulse pattern generator and the signal pulses. The optical pulse width (0.1 ns) and electronic timing jitter are included. We used a linear interpolation to determine the pulse timing when a voltage of the rising edge of the pulse crosses a threshold voltage.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pulse height distributions calculated by Eq. (1). The average number of detected photons for each distribution is approximately 2.6 (a) and 1 (b).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pulse height distributions at a repetition rate of 1 GHz calculated by Eq. (1).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Characteristics at the Bias Voltage of 71.7 V

Equations (2)

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VH(t)=V(t+Δt)2V(t)+V(tΔt).
V H i =V( t i )V( t i Δt)min( k 1 a i1 , k 2 a i )Δt.

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