Abstract

As the sensitivity and detection limit of photonic refractive index (RI) biosensor increases, the temperature dependence becomes a major challenge. In this paper, we present a Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI) biosensor based on silicon nitride slot waveguides. The biosensor is designed for minimal temperature dependence without compromising the performance in terms of sensitivity and detection limit. With air cladding, the measured surface sensitivity and detection limit of MZI biosensor reach 7.16 nm/ (ngmm−2) and 1.30 (pgmm−2), while achieving a low temperature dependence is 5.0 pm/o C. With water cladding, the measured bulk sensitivity and detection limit reach 1730(2π)/RIU and 1.29 × 10−5 RIU respectively. By utilizing Vernier effect through cascaded MZI structures, the measured sensitivity enhancement factor is 8.38, which results in a surface detection limit of 0.155 (pgmm−2).

© 2012 OSA

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2011 (1)

2010 (8)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J. M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1879–1887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3487–3493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, A. Delâge, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, Y. Li, G. Lopinski, D. Zhang, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Label-free biosensor array based on silicon-on-insulator ring resonators addressed using a WDM approach,” Opt. Lett. 35(16), 2771–2773 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (2)

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. D. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface Plasmon resonance-how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Bailey, R. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholomew, D. U.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Carlborg, C. F.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr, R.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Casquel, R.

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

Claes, T.

Dai, D. X.

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dumon, P.

Elkind, J.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. D. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J. M.

Furlong, C.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Griol, A.

Guha, B.

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, X

He, J. J.

Hochberg, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

Huang, X. G.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

Jian, X

Jin, L.

Jones, T. B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C. B.

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kukanskis, K.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kyotoku, B. B. C.

Lapointe, J.

Li, M. Y.

Li, Y.

Li, Y. H.

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface Plasmon resonance-how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, Q. Y.

Lopinski, G.

Luebbert, C. C.

Lundstrom, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface Plasmon resonance-how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melendez, J.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messaoudène, S.

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moooka, T.

Morthier, G.

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface Plasmon resonance-how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Post, E.

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

Schmid, J. H.

Shopova, S. I.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3080–3082 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, C. B.

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Su, H.

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. Z.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teng, J.

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uenuma, M.

Vachon, M.

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. D. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodbury, R.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

Yee, S.

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Zhang, H. B.

Zhao, M. S.

Zhu, H. Y.

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. D. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Y. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Z. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Y. Chao and L. J. Guo, “Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1527–1529 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, and I. Lundstrom, “Biosensing with surface Plasmon resonance-how it all started,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 10(8), i–ix (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. B. Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Laber-Free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip 10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. B. Kim and C. B. Su, “Measurement of the refractive index of liquids at 1.3 and 1.5 micron using a fibre optic Fresnel ratio meter,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(9), 1683–1686 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

I. M. White and X. D. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1879–1887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3487–3493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, E. Post, S. Messaoudène, and J. M. Fédéli, “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in SOI wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, H. Sohlström, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3226–3237 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X Jian, X Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Dai, “Highly sensitive digital optical sensor based on cascaded high-Q ring-resonators,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23817–23822 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Claes, W. Bogaerts, and P. Bienstman, “Experimental characterization of a silicon photonic biosensor consisting of two cascaded ring resonators based on the Vernier-effect and introduction of a curve fitting method for an improved detection limit,” Opt. Express 18(22), 22747–22761 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (2)

H. Su and X. G. Huang, “Fresnel-reflection-based fiber sensor for on-line measurement of solute concentration in solutions,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 126(2), 579–582 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Melendez, R. Carr, D. U. Bartholomew, K. Kukanskis, J. Elkind, S. Yee, C. Furlong, and R. Woodbury, “A commercial solution for surface Plasmon sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 35(1-3), 212–216 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. Narayanaswamy and O. S. Wolfbeis, Optical Sensors, (Springer, 2004).

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith and R. J. Ram, “Efficient thermal tuning for second-order silicon nitride microring resonators,” Photonics. In. Switching, 149–150 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Plan-view and cross-section schematics of the athermal MZI biosensor. Cross sections schematics and TEM images of different arms are also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The (a-e) measured transmission spectra of MZI biosensor with air cladding and (f) temperature dependence ∂λ/∂T under different ΔL/L. Here we fix L = 1 mm as an example.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of MZI biosensor with L = 7 mm and ΔL/L = 0.396 under NaCl solution with different concentration. (a-d) Measured photocurrent of the photodetector at the output of the MZI biosensor with time with (a) water-1% NaCl-water under λ = 1542.0 nm (b) water-3% NaCl-water under λ = 1541.88 nm (c) water-5% NaCl-water under λ = 1542.0 nm (d) water-10% NaCl-water under λ = 1542.08 nm. (e) zoomed-in view of Fig. 3(d) which shows standard deviation of amplitude noise σ (f) Fitted spectra and phase shift of the MZI biosensor under NaCl solution with different concentration in which No.1-4 denotes different peaks. The measured free spectral range of the sensor with water cladding is FSRs = 0.42 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The measured phase shift (2π) of MZI biosensor with L=7 mm and ΔL/L=0.396 according to the refractive index of chemical target. The measured bulk sensitivity reaches 1730 (2π)/RIU with detection limit of 1.29×10−5 RIU.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured transmission (a) spectra and (b) effective RI shift of slot waveguide with air cladding Δneff_slot_air under different bilayer of cladding polymer with L = 7 mm and ΔL/L = 0.396 mm. Δn denotes the unit of changes of neff_slot_air according to the relationship Δneff_slot_air = m Δn in which m denotes the number of bilayer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of cascaded athermal MZI biosensor with L = 7 mm, ΔL/L = 0.396 and L’ = 26.1 mm. In the cascaded MZI biosensor, the reference MZI is covered with 2 µm-thick oxide cladding layer. The Free Spectrum Range of sensing MZI, reference MZI and cascaded MZI are denoted as FSRs, FSRr and FSRc respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The output spectra of cascaded MZI biosensor (a) under different bilayers of PSS/PAH and (b) Zoomed-in view of (a) with m=0.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured surface sensitivity of one and two MZI biosensor.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I out I in = 1 2 (1+cosϕ),ϕ= 2π λ [( n eff_slot n eff_strip )L+ n eff_strip ΔL],
Δϕ= 2π λ Δ n eff_slot L,
Δλ λ = Δ n eff_slot L ( n g_slot n g_strip )L+ n g_strip ΔL ,
FS R s (λ)= λ M = λ 2 ( n g_slot n g_strip )L+ n g_strip ΔL ,
λ T = ΔL M n neff_strip T + L M ( n neff_slot n neff_strip ) T ,
n neff_strip T (LΔL)= n neff_slot T L,
FS R c = FS R s FS R r | FS R s FS R r | ,K= FS R r | FS R s FS R r |

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