Abstract

We present a label-free, optical nano-biosensor based on the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) that is observed at the metal-dielectric interface of silver nano-disk arrays located periodically on a sapphire substrate by Electron-Beam Lithography (EBL). The nano-disk array was designed by finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD) algorithm-based simulations. Refractive index sensitivity was calculated experimentally as 221-354 nm/RIU for different sized arrays. The sensing mechanism was first tested with a biotin-avidin pair, and then a preliminary trial for sensing heat-killed Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 bacteria was done. Although the study is at an early stage, the results indicate that such a plasmonic structure can be applied to bio-sensing applications and then extended to the detection of specific bacteria species as a fast and low cost alternative.

© 2012 OSA

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2010

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

2009

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1608–1613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. X. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and biosensor application of ultrathin silver films prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(43), 16784–16791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. Kahraman, M. M. Yazici, F. Sahin, O. F. Bayrak, and M. Culha, “Reproducible surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of bacteria on aggregated silver nanoparticles,” Appl. Spectrosc. 61(5), 479–485 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Subramanian, J. Irudayaraj, and T. Ryan, “A mixed self-assembled monolayer-based surface plasmon immunosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(7), 998–1006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhao, J. J. Xu, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrochemical biosensors based on layer-by-layer assemblies,” Electroanalysis 18(18), 1737–1748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Radke and E. C. Alocilja, “A high density microelectrode array biosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1662–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Daly, T. Collier, and S. Doyle, “PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34(3), 222–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Cooper, “Optical biosensors in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1(7), 515–528 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Alocilja, E. C.

S. M. Radke and E. C. Alocilja, “A high density microelectrode array biosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1662–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angelome, P. C.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, T.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R. M.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, C. H.

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

Bayrak, O. F.

Bhuju, S.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Butman, B. T.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carcenac, F.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, L.

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chau, L. K.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. D.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Y.

W. Zhao, J. J. Xu, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrochemical biosensors based on layer-by-layer assemblies,” Electroanalysis 18(18), 1737–1748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S. F.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cockerill, F. R.

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

Collier, T.

P. Daly, T. Collier, and S. Doyle, “PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34(3), 222–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, A.

J. X. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and biosensor application of ultrathin silver films prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(43), 16784–16791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, M. A.

M. A. Cooper, “Optical biosensors in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1(7), 515–528 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couraud, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Culha, M.

Daly, P.

P. Daly, T. Collier, and S. Doyle, “PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34(3), 222–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, S.

P. Daly, T. Collier, and S. Doyle, “PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34(3), 222–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. L.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1608–1613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durham, R. J.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Dylla, B. L.

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J. X.

J. X. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and biosensor application of ultrathin silver films prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(43), 16784–16791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. Q.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1608–1613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fung, K. H.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gemeiner, P.

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glucksberg, M. R.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimes, C. A.

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gronewold, T.

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haes, A. J.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, M.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, J. G.

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ionescu, A.

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

Irudayaraj, J.

A. Subramanian, J. Irudayaraj, and T. Ryan, “A mixed self-assembled monolayer-based surface plasmon immunosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(7), 998–1006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffrey, S. R.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Johnson, R. P.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Johnson, S. T.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahraman, M.

Kelly, K. L.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Keusgen, M.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klein, W. L.

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kong, B.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krause, H. J.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P. K. R.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Launois, H.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, A. A.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lebib, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, F. Y.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. H.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. Y.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. T.

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

Liz-Marzan, L. M.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Llandro, J.

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

Lohndorf, M.

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, S. L.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, K. J.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, L. A.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mai, N. N.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malave, A.

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malinsky, M. D.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Manin-Ferlazzo, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, A. D.

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mejias, M.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, M. H.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miethe, P.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, M. M.

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palfreyman, J. J.

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

Pedersen, R. H.

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Radke, S. M.

S. M. Radke and E. C. Alocilja, “A high density microelectrode array biosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1662–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranjit Yonzon, C.

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riboh, J. C.

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, C.

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, T.

A. Subramanian, J. Irudayaraj, and T. Ryan, “A mixed self-assembled monolayer-based surface plasmon immunosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(7), 998–1006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahin, F.

Schatz, G. C.

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sepúlveda, B.

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafer-Peltier, K. E.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stehr, M.

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturdik, E.

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, A.

A. Subramanian, J. Irudayaraj, and T. Ryan, “A mixed self-assembled monolayer-based surface plasmon immunosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(7), 998–1006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tam, W. Y.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tang, T. L.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tewes, M.

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thoreson, M. D.

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

Tkac, J.

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tominaga, J.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, A. A.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, O. K.

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetter, E. A.

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

Vieu, C.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vostiar, I.

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C. R. C.

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, W. Z.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willets, K. A.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, J. J.

W. Zhao, J. J. Xu, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrochemical biosensors based on layer-by-layer assemblies,” Electroanalysis 18(18), 1737–1748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yazici, M. M.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yonzon, C. R.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, K.

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, X. D.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, W.

W. Zhao, J. J. Xu, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrochemical biosensors based on layer-by-layer assemblies,” Electroanalysis 18(18), 1737–1748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

J. X. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and biosensor application of ultrathin silver films prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(43), 16784–16791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. L.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1608–1613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, “Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(19), 1685–1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem.

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A unified view of propagating and localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 379(7-8), 920–930 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

C. Ruan, K. Zeng, O. K. Varghese, and C. A. Grimes, “Magnetoelastic immunosensors: amplified mass immunosorbent assay for detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7,” Anal. Chem. 75(23), 6494–6498 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

K. A. Willets and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 58(1), 267–297 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Environ. Microbiol.

R. P. Johnson, R. J. Durham, S. T. Johnson, L. A. MacDonald, S. R. Jeffrey, and B. T. Butman, “Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, EHEC-Tek,” Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61(1), 386–388 (1995).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. T. Liu, M. D. Thoreson, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Translation of nanoantenna hot spots by a metal-dielectric composite superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 033114 (2009).

Appl. Spectrosc.

Appl. Surf. Sci.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pepin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bioelectrochemistry

I. Vostiar, J. Tkac, E. Sturdik, and P. Gemeiner, “Amperometric urea biosensor based on urease and electropolymerized toluidine blue dye as a pH-sensitive redox probe,” Bioelectrochemistry 56(1-2), 113–115 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron.

X. Y. Liu, X. D. Zeng, N. N. Mai, Y. Liu, B. Kong, Y. H. Li, W. Z. Wei, and S. L. Luo, “Amperometric glucose biosensor with remarkable acid stability based on glucose oxidase entrapped in colloidal gold-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 25(12), 2675–2679 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Subramanian, J. Irudayaraj, and T. Ryan, “A mixed self-assembled monolayer-based surface plasmon immunosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 21(7), 998–1006 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Radke and E. C. Alocilja, “A high density microelectrode array biosensor for detection of E. coli O157:H7,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 20(8), 1662–1667 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Chen, S. F. Cheng, L. K. Chau, and C. R. C. Wang, “Sensing capability of the localized surface plasmon resonance of gold nanorods,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 926–932 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

F. Y. Lee, K. H. Fung, T. L. Tang, W. Y. Tam, and C. T. Chan, “Fabrication of gold nano-particle arrays using two-dimensional templates from holographic lithography,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(4), 820–825 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electroanalysis

W. Zhao, J. J. Xu, and H. Y. Chen, “Electrochemical biosensors based on layer-by-layer assemblies,” Electroanalysis 18(18), 1737–1748 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf.

A. A. Tseng, K. Chen, C. D. Chen, and K. J. Ma, “Electron beam lithography in nanoscale fabrication: recent development,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 26(2), 141–149 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

K. E. Shafer-Peltier, C. L. Haynes, M. R. Glucksberg, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Toward a glucose biosensor based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 588–593 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Malinsky, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Chain length dependence and sensing capabilities of the localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles chemically modified with alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123(7), 1471–1482 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Haes and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: sensitivity and selectivity of an approach based on the localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy of triangular silver nanoparticles,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(35), 10596–10604 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Microbiol.

B. L. Dylla, E. A. Vetter, J. G. Hughes, and F. R. Cockerill, “Evaluation of an immunoassay for direct detection of Escherichia coli O157 in stool specimens,” J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(1), 222–224 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Microbiol. Methods

M. H. Meyer, M. Stehr, S. Bhuju, H. J. Krause, M. Hartmann, P. Miethe, M. Singh, and M. Keusgen, “Magnetic biosensor for the detection of Yersinia pestis,” J. Microbiol. Methods 68(2), 218–224 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

T. Arai, P. K. R. Kumar, C. Rockstuhl, K. Awazu, and J. Tominaga, “An optical biosensor based on localized surface plasmon resonance of silver nanostructured films,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(7), 699–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

J. C. Riboh, A. J. Haes, A. D. McFarland, C. Ranjit Yonzon, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A nanoscale optical biosensor: Real-time immunoassay in physiological buffer enabled by improved nanoparticle adhesion,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(8), 1772–1780 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Miller and A. A. Lazarides, “Sensitivity of metal nanoparticle surface plasmon resonance to the dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(46), 21556–21565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C

J. X. Fu, A. Collins, and Y. P. Zhao, “Optical properties and biosensor application of ultrathin silver films prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(43), 16784–16791 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, and S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to adsorbed films,” Langmuir 14(19), 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lett. Appl. Microbiol.

P. Daly, T. Collier, and S. Doyle, “PCR-ELISA detection of Escherichia coli in milk,” Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 34(3), 222–226 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

J. Llandro, J. J. Palfreyman, A. Ionescu, and C. H. Barnes, “Magnetic biosensor technologies for medical applications: a review,” Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 48(10), 977–998 (2010).

Metamaterials (Amst.)

Z. Liu, A. Boltasseva, R. H. Pedersen, R. M. Bakker, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Plasmonic nanoantenna arrays for the visible,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 45–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electron beam lithography, a helpful tool for nanooptics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 1464–1467 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Malave, M. Tewes, T. Gronewold, and M. Lohndorf, “Development of impedance biosensors with nanometer gaps for marker-free analytical measurements,” Microelectron. Eng. 78–79, 587–592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. J. Haes, W. P. Hall, L. Chang, W. L. Klein, and R. P. Van Duyne, “A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor: First steps toward an assay for Alzheimer's disease,” Nano Lett. 4(6), 1029–1034 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Today

B. Sepúlveda, P. C. Angelome, L. M. Lechuga, and L. M. Liz-Marzan, “LSPR-based nanobiosensors,” Nano Today 4(3), 244–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanomedicine (Lond)

J. Zhao, X. Zhang, C. R. Yonzon, A. J. Haes, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Localized surface plasmon resonance biosensors,” Nanomedicine (Lond) 1(2), 219–228 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Drug Discov.

M. A. Cooper, “Optical biosensors in drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 1(7), 515–528 (2002).
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Opt. Mater.

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B,” Opt. Mater. 31(11), 1608–1613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Zhu, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “Fabrication and characterization of rhombic silver nanoparticles for biosensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 769–774 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

S. L. Zhu, F. Li, C. L. Du, and Y. Q. Fu, “A localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensor based on rhombic Ag nanoparticle array,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(1), 193–198 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

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N. Menon, “Optical biosensors:applying photonics products to the biomedical diagnostics market,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), (Los Angeles, California, 2004).

G. P. Wiederrecht, Handbook of Nanoscale Optics and Electronics (Elsevier, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

EBL designed nano-disks. Period 150 nm; EHT is set as 10kV. (a) Diameter of nano-disks is about 73.21 nm, (b) Diameter of nano-disks is approx. 57.76 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Reflection simulations: Radii and the height are held constant at 30 nm, and periods vary 150-300 nm. (b) Reflection simulations: Periods held constant at 150 nm, height is 30 nm, and the diameter varies 30-73 nm. (c) Reflection measurements: Periods held constant at 150 nm, height is 30 nm, and the diameter varies 30-73 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission measurement for silver NPs before application of chemicals (1), after the application of chemicals (2), after the application of biotin (3), and after the application of avidin (4). Inset: the schematic illustration of surface functionalization steps.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

LSPR wavelength shifts with respect to avidin concentration. A sigmoidal dependence was observed and fit by hill function (red curve; inflection point slope ~0.99). Inset: Real time binding, LSPR wavelength versus time after the application of avidin is shown. Real time measurements after 1 minute, 2, 4, 12, 32 minutes and 3 hours are taken.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission measurements after incubation in antibody and E. coli positive control solutions inset: Dark-field Electron-microscope image of the sensor surface after the bacteria is applied. The applied bacteria look like cylindrical rods. The square shaped sensor area is 50um x 50um.

Equations (1)

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E(λ)= 24π N A r 3 ε m 3/2 λ.ln(10) [ ε 1 ( λ ) ( ε r ( λ )+2 ε m ) 2 + ε 1 2 ( λ ) ]

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