Abstract

Superbroad near-to-mid infrared (NIR-MIR) photoluminescence was observed from Bi5(AlCl4)3 at room temperature, spanning the spectral range of about 1000 to 4000 nm. On the basis of structural considerations and dynamic analyses, Bi53+ clusters were identified as the optically active species, inherently differing from the species which is typically believed to be active in NIR-emitting Bi-doped glasses. In comparison to most other NIR-luminescent Bi-doped materials, the MIR-part of the luminescence spectrum is still present at room temperature. Emission intensity and excited state lifetime were found to exhibit abnormal temperature dependence, where the former increases with temperature up to a critical value of about 150 K. This behavior is related to a temperature-dependent overlap between ground state and excited states. The observed stabilization of MIR photoemission at room temperature may be a starting point for the development of Bi-based NIR-MIR light sources with superbroad emission spectrum, where Bi53+ or similar polycationic species act as optical gain medium.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011 (9)

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, N. N. Il’ichev, N. S. Kozlova, and E. M. Dianov, “Influence of electron irradiation on optical properties of Bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6599–6608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano-aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr(3+)-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (8)

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Ahmed, D. Kohler, and M. Ruck, “Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 635(2), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

1995 (1)

S. Ulvenlund, L. Bengtsson-Kloo, and K. Stahl, “Formation of subvalent bismuth cations in molten gallium trichloride and benzene solutions,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 4223–4234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. Krebs, M. Mummert, and C. Brendel, “Characterization of the Bi53+ cluster cation: preparation of single crystals, crystal and molecular structure of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” J. Less Common Met. 116(1), 159–168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

E. Perenthaler, H. Schulz, and A. Rabenau, “Die Strukturen von LiAlCl4 und NaAlCl4 als Funktion der Temperatur,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 491(1), 259–265 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

J. Corbett, “Homopolyatomic ions of the heavy post-transition elements. The preparation, properties and bonding of Bi5(AlCl4)3 and Bi4(AlCl4),” Inorg. Chem. 7(2), 198–208 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. Niels, J. Bjerrum, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, E.

E. Ahmed, D. Kohler, and M. Ruck, “Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 635(2), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akada, T.

Arai, Y.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

Bai, Z.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bengtsson-Kloo, L.

S. Ulvenlund, L. Bengtsson-Kloo, and K. Stahl, “Formation of subvalent bismuth cations in molten gallium trichloride and benzene solutions,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 4223–4234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, L.

I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano-aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bjerrum, J.

C. Niels, J. Bjerrum, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brendel, C.

B. Krebs, M. Mummert, and C. Brendel, “Characterization of the Bi53+ cluster cation: preparation of single crystals, crystal and molecular structure of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” J. Less Common Met. 116(1), 159–168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I.

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bufetov, I. A.

Chen, D.

Chen, G.

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Corbett, J.

J. Corbett, “Homopolyatomic ions of the heavy post-transition elements. The preparation, properties and bonding of Bi5(AlCl4)3 and Bi4(AlCl4),” Inorg. Chem. 7(2), 198–208 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Da, N.

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Dianov, E.

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E. M.

Dong, G.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dong, H.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Q.

Duan, X. M.

Dvoyrin, V.

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dvoyrin, V. V.

Feng, G.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Firstov, S. V.

Firstova, E. G.

Fujii, M.

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

Hu, L.

Hughes, M. A.

Il’ichev, N. N.

Jain, R.

Jiang, N.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, Y. L.

Khonthon, S.

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kir’yanov, A. V.

Kohler, D.

E. Ahmed, D. Kohler, and M. Ruck, “Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 635(2), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kozlova, N. S.

Krebs, B.

B. Krebs, M. Mummert, and C. Brendel, “Characterization of the Bi53+ cluster cation: preparation of single crystals, crystal and molecular structure of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” J. Less Common Met. 116(1), 159–168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, S.

Lei, W.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Levchenko, A. E.

Li, H.

Li, J.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V.

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mashinsky, V. M.

Melkumov, M. A.

Meng, X.

Miwa, Y.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, S.

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

Mummert, M.

B. Krebs, M. Mummert, and C. Brendel, “Characterization of the Bi53+ cluster cation: preparation of single crystals, crystal and molecular structure of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” J. Less Common Met. 116(1), 159–168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Niels, C.

C. Niels, J. Bjerrum, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M.

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perenthaler, E.

E. Perenthaler, H. Schulz, and A. Rabenau, “Die Strukturen von LiAlCl4 und NaAlCl4 als Funktion der Temperatur,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 491(1), 259–265 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Qiu, J.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rabenau, A.

E. Perenthaler, H. Schulz, and A. Rabenau, “Die Strukturen von LiAlCl4 und NaAlCl4 als Funktion der Temperatur,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 491(1), 259–265 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Razdobreev, I.

I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano-aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Ruck, M.

E. Ahmed, D. Kohler, and M. Ruck, “Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 635(2), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakka, Y.

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schulz, H.

E. Perenthaler, H. Schulz, and A. Rabenau, “Die Strukturen von LiAlCl4 und NaAlCl4 als Funktion der Temperatur,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 491(1), 259–265 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwefel, H. G.

Semenov, S. L.

Shirahata, N.

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, A. V.

Smith, G.

C. Niels, J. Bjerrum, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, V. O.

Song, Z.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sprenger, B.

Stahl, K.

S. Ulvenlund, L. Bengtsson-Kloo, and K. Stahl, “Formation of subvalent bismuth cations in molten gallium trichloride and benzene solutions,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 4223–4234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stiegelschmitt, A.

Su, L.

Sun, H.

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. T.

Suzuki, T.

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

Tian, Y.

Ulvenlund, S.

S. Ulvenlund, L. Bengtsson-Kloo, and K. Stahl, “Formation of subvalent bismuth cations in molten gallium trichloride and benzene solutions,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 4223–4234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vel’miskin, V. V.

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Wang, Y. Z.

Wondraczek, L.

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Wu, E.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

Xu, R.

Yan, Q.

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Yang, H.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, I.

Yang, L.

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B. Q.

Yin, Z.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

Zeng, H.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

Zhao, G. J.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, Q.

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

Zheng, L. L.

Zhou, D.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C.

Zhu, K.

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

Zollfrank, C.

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Zhou, H. Dong, H. Zeng, G. Feng, H. Yang, B. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Broadband optical amplification in Bi-doped germanium silicate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061919 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Suzuki and Y. Ohishi, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from Bi-doped Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(19), 191912 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arai, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, S. Morimoto, and S. Khonthon, “Ultrabroadband near-infrared emission from a colorless bismuth-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261110 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. Dvoyrin, V. Mashinsky, and E. Dianov, “Efficient bismuth-Doped Fiber Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(9), 834–840 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem. (2)

C. Niels, J. Bjerrum, and G. Smith, “Lower oxidation states of bismuth. Bi+ and Bi53+ in molten salt solutions,” Inorg. Chem. 6(6), 1162–1172 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Corbett, “Homopolyatomic ions of the heavy post-transition elements. The preparation, properties and bonding of Bi5(AlCl4)3 and Bi4(AlCl4),” Inorg. Chem. 7(2), 198–208 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

Z. Yang, Z. Liu, Z. Song, D. Zhou, Z. Yin, K. Zhu, and J. Qiu, “Influence of optical basicity on broadband near infrared emission in bismuth doped aluminosilicate glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 509(24), 6816–6818 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

M. Peng, Q. Zhao, J. Qiu, and L. Wondraczek, “Generation of emission centers for broadband NIR luminescence in bismuthate glass by femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(2), 542–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Khonthon, S. Morimoto, Y. Arai, and Y. Ohishi, “Luminescence characteristics of Te- and Bi-doped glasses and glass-ceramics,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 115(1340), 259–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. (1)

S. Ulvenlund, L. Bengtsson-Kloo, and K. Stahl, “Formation of subvalent bismuth cations in molten gallium trichloride and benzene solutions,” J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 4223–4234 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Less Common Met. (1)

B. Krebs, M. Mummert, and C. Brendel, “Characterization of the Bi53+ cluster cation: preparation of single crystals, crystal and molecular structure of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” J. Less Common Met. 116(1), 159–168 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (3)

S. Zhou, W. Lei, N. Jiang, J. Hao, E. Wu, H. Zeng, and J. Qiu, “Space-selective control of luminescence inside the Bi-doped mesoporous silica glass by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(26), 4603–4608 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sun, Y. Sakka, H. Gao, Y. Miwa, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, Z. Bai, and J. Li, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi5(AlCl4)3 crystal,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(12), 4060–4063 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Bismuth-doped oxide glasses as potential solar spectral converters and concentrators,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(5), 627–630 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

M. Peng, G. Dong, L. Wondraczek, L. Zhang, N. Zhang, and J. Qiu, “Discussion on the origin of NIR emission from Bi-doped materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 357(11-13), 2241–2245 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

M. Peng, C. Zollfrank, and L. Wondraczek, “Origin of broad NIR photoluminescence in bismuthate glass and Bi-doped glasses at room temperature,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(28), 285106 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Bufetov and E. Dianov, “Bi-doped fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 6(7), 487–504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (8)

M. A. Hughes, T. Akada, T. Suzuki, Y. Ohishi, and D. W. Hewak, “Ultrabroad emission from a bismuth doped chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19345–19355 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Kir’yanov, V. V. Dvoyrin, V. M. Mashinsky, N. N. Il’ichev, N. S. Kozlova, and E. M. Dianov, “Influence of electron irradiation on optical properties of Bismuth doped silica fibers,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6599–6608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, B. Sprenger, M. A. Schmidt, H. G. Schwefel, and L. Wondraczek, “Broadband NIR photoluminescence from Bi-doped Ba2P2O7 crystals: insights into the nature of NIR-emitting Bismuth centers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12852–12863 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, H. Zhao, L. Su, J. Yu, P. Zhou, H. Tang, L. Zheng, and H. Li, “Study on the effect of heat-annealing and irradiation on spectroscopic properties of Bi:alpha-BaB2O4 single crystal,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3385–3391 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Da, S. Krolikowski, A. Stiegelschmitt, and L. Wondraczek, “Luminescence from Bi2+-activated alkali earth borophosphates for white LEDs,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21169–21178 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Q. Yao, X. M. Duan, L. L. Zheng, Y. L. Ju, Y. Z. Wang, G. J. Zhao, and Q. Dong, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched operation of a resonantly pumped Ho:YAlO3 laser,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14668–14674 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, N. Zhang, L. Wondraczek, J. Qiu, Z. Yang, and Q. Zhang, “Ultrabroad NIR luminescence and energy transfer in Bi and Er/Bi co-doped germanate glasses,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20799–20807 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Broadband infrared luminescence from Li2O-Al2O3-ZnO-SiO2 glasses doped with Bi2O3.,” Opt. Express 13(18), 6892–6898 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (8)

V. O. Sokolov, V. G. Plotnichenko, and E. M. Dianov, “Origin of broadband near-infrared luminescence in bismuth-doped glasses,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1488–1490 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhu and R. Jain, “Watt-level Er-doped and Er-Pr-codoped ZBLAN fiber amplifiers at the 2.7-2.8 microm wavelength range,” Opt. Lett. 33(14), 1578–1580 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Xu, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Enhanced emission of 2.7 μm pumped by laser diode from Er3+/Pr(3+)-codoped germanate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1173–1175 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Sun, Y. Sakka, M. Fujii, N. Shirahata, and H. Gao, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from ionic liquids containing subvalent bismuth,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 100–102 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Sr(2)P(2)O(7):Bi(2+) as a red phosphor for additive light generation,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2544–2546 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, and C. Zhu, “Superbroadband 1310 nm emission from bismuth and tantalum codoped germanium oxide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2433–2435 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peng, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Meng, I. Yang, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Bismuth- and aluminum-codoped germanium oxide glasses for super-broadband optical amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1998–2000 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Bufetov, M. A. Melkumov, S. V. Firstov, A. V. Shubin, S. L. Semenov, V. V. Vel’miskin, A. E. Levchenko, E. G. Firstova, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical gain and laser generation in bismuth-doped silica fibers free of other dopants,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 166–168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater. (1)

I. Razdobreev and L. Bigot, “On the multiplicity of Bismuth active centres in germano-aluminosilicate preform,” Opt. Mater. 33(6), 973–977 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B (1)

W. Wang, Q. Yan, J. Ren, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Ultrabroad near-infrared photoluminescence from Bi/Dy/Tm co-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses: Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. B. in press.

Solid State Commun. (1)

J. Ren, L. Yang, J. Qiu, D. Chen, X. Jiang, and C. Zhu, “Effect of various alkaline-earth metal oxides on the broadband infrared luminescence from bismuth-doped silicate glasses,” Solid State Commun. 140(1), 38–41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (2)

E. Perenthaler, H. Schulz, and A. Rabenau, “Die Strukturen von LiAlCl4 und NaAlCl4 als Funktion der Temperatur,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 491(1), 259–265 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Ahmed, D. Kohler, and M. Ruck, “Room-temperature synthesis of bismuth clusters in ionic liquids and crystal growth of Bi5(AlCl4)3,” Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 635(2), 297–300 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A): Unit cell representation of Bi5(AlCl4)3 drawn on the basis of Rietveld refining results of curve 1 in (B). Aluminum and chlorine atoms are omitted except bismuth for clarity. Purple and green spheres represent Bi(1) and Bi(2), respectively. (B): (1) powder XRD profile of the sample of ANB1.33B prepared at 290°C for 10 hours, (2) and (3) simulated patterns of NaAlCl4 and Bi5(AlCl4)3 with crystallographic data in Refs. 26,37, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL (curves 1-4) and excitation (curve 5) spectra of ANB1.33B sample prepared at 290°C for 10 hours. Curve 1 is upon 468nm excitation, curve 2 is the PL spectrum calibrated to the detector spectral response, and both of them were recorded with liquid nitrogen cooled NIR photomultiplier (Hamamatsu R5509-72). Curve 3 is under the excitation of 808nm laser with a PbSe detector. Curve 4 is the magnified spectrum of curve 3 in 3300-4000nm. Curve 5 was measured by monitoring the emission at 1600nm. Inset represents bismuth polycation polyhedron.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL spectra of (1) bismuth doped germinate glass, (2) bismuth doped lithium aluminosilicate glass and (3) ANB1.33B sample prepared at 290°C for 10 hours. The spectra were measured under the excitation of 808nm laser with a PbSe detector at room temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence of the intensity of infrared emission of sample ANB2.00B prepared at 290°C for 10 hours on pump power of 808nm laser diode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Decay curves of sample ANB2.00B the emission at 1420nm excited by 468nm at different temperatures (10-300K). Solid black line: fit of the 300-K-data to a single exponential equation (y = 0.019 + 0.819exp(-x/5.96); correlation coefficient 97.08%).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of integrated fluorescence intensity and lifetime on temperature in sample ANB2.00B. Error bars were added to both intensity and lifetime. Lines are guides for the eye.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic configurational coordinate diagram for a possible mechanism of temperature-dependent photoemission from Bi53+, energy E vs. coordinate r. Parabola “GS” refers to the ground states e’(1) and e” of Bi53+, parabola “ES1” to the lowest excited state, and parabolae “ES2” and “ES3” to e’(2)(E’) and a1’(E’), respectively [28]. For clarity, only the states GS, ES1, ES2, and ES3 are shown. Labels 1-5 refer to the different possible relaxation paths (see text). Excitation transitions are marked as upward arrows; radiative relaxation as downward arrow.

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