Abstract

A high-speed depletion-mode silicon-based microring modulator with interleaved PN junctions optimized for high modulation efficiency and large alignment tolerance is demonstrated. It is fabricated using standard 0.18 μm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor processes and provides low VπLπs of 0.68 V·cm to 1.64 V·cm with a moderate doping concentration of 2 × 1017 cm−3. The measured modulation efficiency decreases by only 12.4% under ± 150 nm alignment errors. 25 Gbit/s non-return-zero modulation with a 4.5 dB extinction ratio is experimentally realized at a peak-to-peak driving voltage of 2 V, demonstrating the excellent performance of the novel doping profile.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

2010

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18235–18242 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

2007

2006

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amberg, P.

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

De Keersgieter, A.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dong, F.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fournier, M.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grenouillet, L.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

Hu, Y.

Izhaky, N.

Janz, S.

Khan, M. H.

Kim, G.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C.-C.

Lentine, A. L.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.-Y.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Mandorlo, F.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G.

McKinnon, W. R.

Mekis, A.

Milesi, F.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device Requirements for Optical Interconnects to Silicon Chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morthier, G.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

Park, M.

Pinckney, N.

Pinguet, T.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Qi, M.

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Rasigade, G.

Raz, O.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Regreny, P.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchis, P.

Schmid, J. H.

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Selvaraja, S. K.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shen, H.

Shi, J.

Shubin, I.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spuesens, T.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Thomson, D. J.

Trotter, D. C.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Xu, D.-X.

Xu, H.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yao, J.

You, J. B.

Young, R. W.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.-Z.

Yu, Y.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ziebell, M.

Zortman, W. A.

W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, and A. De Keersgieter, “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “The Past, Present, and Future of Silicon Photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Thourhout, T. Spuesens, S. K. Selvaraja, L. Liu, G. Roelkens, R. Kumar, G. Morthier, P. Rojo-Romeo, F. Mandorlo, P. Regreny, O. Raz, C. Kopp, and L. Grenouillet, “Nanophotonic devices for optical interconnect,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1363–1375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Chetrit, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, D. Rubin, and M. Paniccia, “Wavelength Division Multiplexing Based Photonic Integrated Circuits on Silicon-on-Insulator Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 23–32 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng.

H. Xu, Z. Li, Y. Zhu, Y. Li, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “Silicon optical modulator with integrated grating couplers based on 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” Opt. Eng. 50(4), 044001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express 15(2), 660–668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, M. H. Khan, H. Shen, and M. Qi, “Compact silicon microring resonators with ultra-low propagation loss in the C band,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14467–14475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. You, M. Park, J. W. Park, and G. Kim, “12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18340–18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-Y. Li, D.-X. Xu, W. R. McKinnon, S. Janz, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and J.-Z. Yu, “Silicon waveguide modulator based on carrier depletion in periodically interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15947–15958 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, A. Brimont, P. Sanchis, G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. O’Faolain, F. Dong, J. M. Fedeli, P. Dumon, L. Vivien, T. F. Krauss, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High-speed modulation of a compact silicon ring resonator based on a reverse-biased pn diode,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21986–21991 (2009).
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P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, K. Preston, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low voltage, ultra-small mode volume silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18235–18242 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, F. Milesi, and J.-M. Fedeli, “High speed silicon optical modulator with self aligned fabrication process,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19064–19069 (2010).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, Y. Hu, G. Mashanovich, M. Fournier, P. Grosse, J.-M. Fedeli, and G. T. Reed, “High contrast 40Gbit/s optical modulation in silicon,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11507–11516 (2011).
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F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
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G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
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W. A. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Low-voltage differentially-signaled modulators,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26017–26026 (2011).
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A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic layout of microring modulator embedded with periodic interleaved PN junctions. The gray regions indicate silicon waveguides. The light blue and yellow regions in the waveguide represent P- and N-doped silicons, respectively. (b) Schematic 3-D view and dimensions of the waveguide with the interleaved PN junctions. The doping period is 600 nm with a P and N duty cycle of 1:1. The waveguide is 500 nm wide and has an 80-nm-thick slab for electrical contact. The interleaved region is 200 nm wider than the waveguide, ensuring large misalignment tolerance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image showing the coupling region of the microring and bus waveguides. (b) Optical microscope view of fabricated 30 μm radius microring modulator with aluminum ground–signal–ground pads.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DC performance of the reverse-biased ring modulator. (a) Transmission spectra of the ring resonator at −5 V to 0.5 V bias voltages. (b) VπLπ with different bias voltages calculated from the measured resonance shifts. The maximal VπLπ of 1.64 V·cm was obtained at a −5 V bias voltage. However, the effective VπLπ for a driving voltage below −2 V is 1.24 V·cm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral responses of the non-biased microring modulator (red) and a passive microring resonator (blue) with identical waveguide dimensions as the ring modulator, respectively. The discrete dots represent the measured results, while the solid lines show the fitted resonances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured effective index change against junction alignment error of interleaved (blue) and vertical (red) PN junctions under −5 V bias, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Equivalent circuit model and fitting data for the S11 parameter measurement at zero bias. (b) Measured S11 magnitude (black) and phase (red) responses with corresponding fitting curves simulated from the equivalent circuit model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured (black) and simulated (red) EO responses of the modulator. The EO response was measured in the frequency range of 0.2 GHz to 20 GHz with a −5 dBm small-signal drive and −1 V DC bias. The measured EO bandwidth is represented by black curve with −3 dB bandwidth of 11.8 GHz. The red curve denotes the simulated response at ~12 GHz, which agrees well with the measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured eye diagrams under bit rates of (a) 14, (b) 20, and (c) 25 Gbit/s, respectively, with driving voltage amplitude of 2 V.

Equations (4)

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V π L π =V FSR×πR Δλ
| V j (ω) |=| V g 2 (1+ Γ L ) 1/(jω C j ) 1/(jω C j )+ R s |
Γ L = Z DUT Z 0 Z DUT + Z 0
Z DUT = 1 jω c p ( 1 jω c j + R S )( 1 jω c ox + R Si ).

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