Abstract

In this work we report on the characteristics of an electro-optical dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguide ring resonator. By doping the dielectric host matrix with an electro-optical material and designing an appropriate set of planar electrodes, we measured a 16% relative change of transmission upon application of a controlled electric field. We have analyzed the temporal response of the device and conclude that electrostriction of the host matrix is playing a dominating role in the transmission response.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  10. A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  34. A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon rainbow jet,” Opt. Lett. 30, 884 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  40. Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (7)

S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041107–041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 11791–11799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguidering resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Wiederrecht, J. Hall, and A. Bouhelier, “Control of molecular energy redistribution pathways via surface plasmon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083001–083005 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

2003 (1)

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401–115411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Nahata, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Electrooptic characterization of organic media,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 128–131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

K. Ohara, M. Hennecke, and J. Furhmann, “Electrostriction of polymethacrylates,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 260, 164–168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, T. B.

Atwater, H. A.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bachman, D.

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A.-L.

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Berthelot, J.

Bhattacharya, K.

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolger, P. M.

A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, J. Hall, and A. Bouhelier, “Control of molecular energy redistribution pathways via surface plasmon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083001–083005 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon rainbow jet,” Opt. Lett. 30, 884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguidering resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanowaveguides and Cirquits (Pan Stanford Publishing, 2009)

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R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
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Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
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Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
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N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
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A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 2972–2978 (2011).
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J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
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J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
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J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
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T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguidering resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
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J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
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J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401–115411 (2003).
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J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
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des Francs, G. C.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
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A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Feigenbaum, E.

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Ohara, M. Hennecke, and J. Furhmann, “Electrostriction of polymethacrylates,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 260, 164–168 (1982).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gonzàlez, M. U.

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gosciniak, J.

Goudonnet, J. P.

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
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J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
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J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
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K. Ohara, M. Hennecke, and J. Furhmann, “Electrostriction of polymethacrylates,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 260, 164–168 (1982).
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C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguidering resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Huser, T.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

Kjelstrup-Hansen, J.

Koller, D.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 11791–11799 (2010).
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A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041107–041109 (2010).
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T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
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A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
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Krenn, J.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

Labbe, P.

C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

Lacroute, Y.

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401–115411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
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S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lukas Eng, M.

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R.-M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

A. Kumar, J. Gosciniak, T. B. Andersen, L. Markey, A. Dereux, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Power monitoring in dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19, 2972–2978 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguidering resonators,” Opt. Express 17, 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michel, S.

S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Nahata, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Electrooptic characterization of organic media,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 128–131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, C. T.

S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

Ohara, K.

K. Ohara, M. Hennecke, and J. Furhmann, “Electrostriction of polymethacrylates,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 260, 164–168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perron, D.

Pohl, D. W.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quidant, R.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Randhawa, S.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renger, J.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, M. U. González, J. Renger, S. Enoch, and R. Quidant, “Design and properties of dielectric surface plasmon bragg mirrors,” Opt. Express 18, 14496–14510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. Aussenegg, “Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons,” Opt. Lett. 30, 893–895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamaru, H.

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

Volkov, V. S.

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18, 1207–1216 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Berthelot, A. Bouhelier, G. C. des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Excitation of a one-dimensional evanescent wave by conical edge diffraction of surface plasmon,” Opt. Express 19, 5303–5312 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401–115411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, J. Hall, and A. Bouhelier, “Control of molecular energy redistribution pathways via surface plasmon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083001–083005 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon rainbow jet,” Opt. Lett. 30, 884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

A. Nahata, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Electrooptic characterization of organic media,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 128–131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Wurtz, G. A.

A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

A. Nahata, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Electrooptic characterization of organic media,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 128–131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Silicon-based plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 11791–11799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041107–041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

N. Galler, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, M. Dansachmueller, F. Camacho-Gonzales, S. Bauer, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electrically actuated elastomers for electro-optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. B,  85, 7–10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

J.-C. Weeber, M. U. González, A.-L. Baudrion, and A. Dereux, “Surface plasmon routing along right angle bent metal strips,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin, P. M. Bolger, G. A. Wurtz, and A. V. Zayats, “Passive photonic elements based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Randhawa, A. V. Krasavin, T. Holmgaard, J. Renger, S. Bozhevolnyi, A. V. Zayats, and R. Quidant, “Experimental demonstration of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide disk resonators at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Electro-optic switching element for dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 041107–041109 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths: Excitation and characterization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 011124 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Massenot, J. Grandidier, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, J. Renger, M. U. Gonzàlez, and R. Quidant, “Polymer-metal waveguides characterization by fourier plane leakage radiation microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 243102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, A. Bouhelier, S. Massenot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides on a finite-width metal strip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, N. Galler, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “How to erase surface plasmon fringes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colloid Polym. Sci. (1)

K. Ohara, M. Hennecke, and J. Furhmann, “Electrostriction of polymethacrylates,” Colloid Polym. Sci. 260, 164–168 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. Nahata, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Electrooptic characterization of organic media,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 41, 128–131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

A. Bouhelier, T. Huser, H. Tamaru, H.-J. Güntherodt, and D. W. Pohl, “Plasmon transmissivity and reflectivity of narrow grooves in a silver film,” J. Microsc. 194, 571–573 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng., B (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, B. S. H. Ditlbacher, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Mater. Sci. Eng., B 148, 220–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9, 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

A. Drezet, D. Koller, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Plasmonic crystal demultiplexer and multiports,” Nano Lett. 7, 1697–1700 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8, 4048–4052 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Briggs, J. Grandidier, S. P. Burgos, E. Feigenbaum, and H. A. Atwater, “Efficient coupling between dielectric-loaded plasmonic and silicon photonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10, 4851–4857 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Grandidier, G. Colas des Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J.-C. Weeber, C. Finot, and A. Dereux, “Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom wavelength,” Nano Lett. 9, 2935–2939 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots,” Nat. Photonics 1, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3, 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Daia, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461, 624–631 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Express. (1)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend-and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express. 16, 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. Jiang, Z. Cao, G. Chen, X. Dou, and Y. Chen, “Low voltage electro-optic polymer light modulator using attenuated total intenal reflection,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33(6), 417–420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401–115411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, J. R. Krenn, A. Dereux, B. Lamprecht, Y. Lacroute, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Near-field observation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on thin metal stripes,” Phys. Rev. B 64, 045411–045420 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafström, and M. Lukas Eng, “Direct excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in nanopatterned metal surfaces and thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 76, 045431–045438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, J. Hall, and A. Bouhelier, “Control of molecular energy redistribution pathways via surface plasmon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083001–083005 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

C. T. Nguyen, R. Hierle, J. Zyss, B. A. Journet, and P. Labbe, “New electro-optic modulator based on polymer waveguide and loop structure,” Proc. SPIE 237, 5351 (2004).

S. Michel, J. Zyss, I. Ledoux-Rak, and C. T. Nguyen, “High-performance electro-optic modulators realized with a commercial side-chain DR1-pmma electro-optic copolymer,” Proc. SPIE 7599, 75990I (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, Plasmonic Nanowaveguides and Cirquits (Pan Stanford Publishing, 2009)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Overview of the various fabrication steps. (b) A snapshot of the design file depicts the electrode layout. The gray areas represent the isolating trenches between the electrodes. The crosses are the alignment marks used for precise fabrication of the WRRs on top of the electrode design.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A schematic showing the design of the WRRs placed on top of in-plane electrodes. (b) Bright field image of fabricated ring and disk resonators on top of Au electrodes. The dark area correspond to the isolating glass trench separating the two electrodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) and (b) Leakage radiation images of a SPP mode in a DR1-doped dielectric-loaded surface plasmon WRR on a planar Au film excited on and off resonance, respectively. (c) Measured transmission curve of the WRR showing two rejection bands at 1519 nm and 1557 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) Leakage radiation images of a SPP mode in a DR1-doped dielectric-loaded surface plasmon WRR with electrode layout excited on and off resonance, respectively. (c) Measured output signal of the doped WRR as a function of incident wavelength. The stars are the operating wavelengths used for the voltage measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evolution of WRR output signal at 1508 nm, 1510 nm and 1516 nm for an upward voltage sweep.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) PMMA-DR1 WRR output response time for an electric field step of 25 MV/m. (b) Controlled experiment with an undoped PMMA WRR.

Equations (1)

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T = 10 × log [ I out I in ] .

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