Abstract

We demonstrate that liquid metals support surface plasmon-polaritons (SPPs) at terahertz (THz) frequencies, and can thus serve as an attractive material system for a wide variety of plasmonic and metamaterial applications. We use eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn) as the liquid metal injected into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold fabricated by soft lithography techniques. Using this approach, we observe enhanced THz transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures. Despite of the fact that the DC conductivity of EGaIn is an order of magnitude smaller than many conventional metals, we clearly observe well-defined transmission resonances. This represents a first step in developing reconfigurable and tunable plasmonic devices that build upon well-developed microfluidic capabilities.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1004–1010 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Podzorov and G. Gallot, “Low-loss polymers for terahertz applications,” Appl. Opt. 47(18), 3254–3257 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Agrawal, Z. V. Vardeny, and A. Nahata, “Engineering the dielectric function of plasmonic lattices,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9601–9613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

1983 (1)

Agrawal, A.

A. Agrawal, Z. V. Vardeny, and A. Nahata, “Engineering the dielectric function of plasmonic lattices,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9601–9613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Atwater, H. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beebe, D. J.

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bell, R. R.

Bell, S. E.

Bolivar, P. H.

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, R. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

Chiechi, R. C.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickey, M. D.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duffy, D. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

Gallot, G.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Geng, B.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Girit, C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Hangyo, M.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, G. J.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horng, J.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hosako, I.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jo, B.-H.

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ju, L.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

Kelaita, Y. A.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T. J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, A.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. G. Rivas, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Thermal switching of the enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1680–1682 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, R. J.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lazzi, G.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, L. L.

Martin, M. C.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. C.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, R.

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motsegood, K. M.

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

A. Agrawal, Z. V. Vardeny, and A. Nahata, “Engineering the dielectric function of plasmonic lattices,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9601–9613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, “Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1004–1010 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ordal, M. A.

Pendry, J.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Podzorov, A.

Pryce, I. M.

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Querry, M. R.

Qusba, A.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rivas, J. G.

Schotsch, C.

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schueller, O. J. A.

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, J.-H.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thelen, J.

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Van Lerberghe, L. M.

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Agrawal, Z. V. Vardeny, and A. Nahata, “Engineering the dielectric function of plasmonic lattices,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9601–9613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, C. A.

Weiss, E. A.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolff, P. A.

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

M. D. Dickey, R. C. Chiechi, R. J. Larsen, E. A. Weiss, D. A. Weitz, and G. M. Whitesides, “Eutectic Gallium-Indium (EGaIn): A liquid metal alloy for the formation of stable structures in microchannels at room temperature,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1097–1104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. So, J. Thelen, A. Qusba, G. J. Hayes, G. Lazzi, and M. D. Dickey, “Reversibly deformable and mechanically tunable fluidic antennas,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(22), 3632–3637 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

D. C. Duffy, J. C. McDonald, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Anal. Chem. 70(23), 4974–4984 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. Matsui, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and R. Menon, “Resonantly-enhanced transmission through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures in heavily-doped conducting polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Miyamaru and M. Hangyo, “Finite size effect of transmission property for metal hole arrays in subterahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2742–2744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (1)

B.-H. Jo, L. M. Van Lerberghe, K. M. Motsegood, and D. J. Beebe, “Three-dimensional micro-channel fabrication in polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) elastomer,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 9(1), 76–81 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Yasuda and I. Hosako, “Measurement of terahertz refractive index of metal with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(3), 1632–1634 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

I. M. Pryce, K. Aydin, Y. A. Kelaita, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly strained compliant optical metamaterials with large frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 4222–4227 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. C. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (3)

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Krishnan, T. Thio, T. J. Kim, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, P. A. Wolff, J. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Evanescently coupled resonance in surface plasmon enhanced transmission,” Opt. Commun. 200(1-6), 1–7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Gómez Rivas, C. Schotsch, P. H. Bolivar, and H. Kurz, “Enhanced transmission of THz radiation through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 68(20), 201306 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Y. Fainman, L. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications (McGraw-Hill, 2010).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the top view (above) and cross-section (below) of the liquid metal aperture array encapsulated in PDMS. The aperture diameter d = 357 µm, the periodic aperture spacing a = 714 µm, the liquid metal thickness t1 = 80 µm and total device thickness t2 = 1 mm. (b) Photograph showing an expanded view of a portion of the array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured complex dielectric constant of EGaIn.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured complex refractive index of the PDMS used in the experiment. The PDMS pre-polymer and curing agent were mixed using a weight of ratio of 11:1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

THz electric field transmission spectra, t(ν) of (a) 15 × 15 liquid metal array with 357 μm diameter apertures periodically spaced by 714 μm. Air and a 1 mm thick PDMS film are used as references. (b) 15 × 15 array with 400 μm diameter apertures periodically spaced by 1 mm in a 75 µm thick free-standing stainless steel foil with air as the reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission properties of the 15 × 15 liquid metal array as a function of stretching the device along the x-axis (a) Measured transmission spectra for three different degrees of stretching (corresponding to different periodicities along the x-axis) with THz radiation polarized along the x-axis. The corresponding lowest order AR frequencies are marked. (b) Measured AR wavelength as a function of stretching for THz radiation polarized parallel (filled black circles) and perpendicular (filled red circles) to the stretch axis. In the absence of stretching (0% elongation), the periodicity is 714 µm along both array axes. The maximum stretched period along the x-axis of 806 µm corresponds to a ~13% elongation of the device along the stretch axis. The lines represent linear least-squares fits to the data.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t(ν)=| t(ν) |exp[iφ(ν)]= E sample (ν) E reference (ν)
ν AR = c P n SPP i 2 + j 2 ,
n SPP = [ ε m ε d ε m + ε d ] 1/2 .
λ AR = P i 2 + j 2 n SPP .

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