Abstract

A Nd:Cr:YVO4 crystal was grown by the Czochralski method for the first time to our knowledge. Its structure and cell parameter have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analysis. Polarized absorption spectra were measured at room temperature, which showed that the absorption bands display polarization character and an absorption band of Cr5+ ions at 1110 nm enables the crystal to be a self-Q-switched laser material. We also found that the absorption of Cr5+ ions became much larger and its self-Q-switched laser performance became much better when the Nd:Cr:YVO4 crystal was annealed because the annealing induces more Cr ions to become those with + 5 valence. In the self-Q-switched laser, the maximum output power, shortest pulse width, and largest pulse energy were obtained to be 120 mW, 85.8 ns, and 0.79μJ, respectively.

© 2012 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Dong, P. Deng, Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, Y. Liu, J. Xu, and W. Chen, “Laser-diode-pumped Cr4+, Nd3+:YAG with self-Q-switched laser output of 1.4 W,” Opt. Lett. 25(15), 1101–1103 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Zhou, K. K. Lee, Y. C. Chen, and S. Li, “Monolithic self-Q-switched Cr,Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 18(7), 511–512 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, W. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, and M. H. Jiang, “Growth and passively self-Q-switched laser output of new Nd3+,Cr5+:GdVO4 crystal,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3320–3325 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 613–620 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, W. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, J. H. Liu, X. Y. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Cr5+:GdVO4 as a saturable absorber for a diode-pumped Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11679–11684 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:La2Sc3(BO3)4 microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, Z. P. Wang, J. Y. Wang, Y. G. Yu, W. L. Gao, X. T. Tao, J. H. Liu, X. Y. Zhang, and M. H. Jiang, “Cr5+:GdVO4 as a saturable absorber for a diode-pumped Nd:Lu0.5Gd0.5VO4 laser,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11679–11684 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 613–620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1972 (1)

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. C.

Deng, P.

Dong, J.

Gao, W. L.

Gerner, P.

P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Glasbeek, M.

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:La2Sc3(BO3)4 microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Krämer, K.

P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuleshov, N. V.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kupchenko, M. I.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Li, S.

Liu, J. H.

Liu, Y.

Lu, Y.

Matrosov, V. N.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Matrosova, T. A.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyn, J. P.

B. Braun, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, J. P. Meyn, and G. Huber, “Passively Q-switched 180-ps Nd:La2Sc3(BO3)4 microchip laser,” Opt. Lett. 21(6), 405–407 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Morel, R. J.

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V. G.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 613–620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, I. A.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taira, T.

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 613–620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tao, X. T.

Vanvoorst, J. D. W.

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Wang, Z. P.

Xu, J.

Yu, H. H.

Yu, Y. G.

Yumashev, K. V.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zagumennyi, A. I.

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Zhang, X. Y.

Zhang, Y.

Zhou, S.

Zolotovkaya, S. A.

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

S. A. Zolotovkaya, K. V. Yumashev, N. V. Kuleshov, V. N. Matrosov, T. A. Matrosova, and M. I. Kupchenko, “Absorption saturation propertied and laser Q-swich performance of Cr5+-doped YVO4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 86(4), 667–671 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Jensen, V. G. Ostroumov, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, A. I. Zagumennyi, and I. A. Shcherbakov, “Spectroscopic characterization and laser performance of diode-laser-pumped Nd:GdVO4,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 373–379 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Lagendijk, R. J. Morel, M. Glasbeek, and J. D. W. Vanvoorst, “ESR of Cr5+ in chromium-doped SrTiO3 single crystals,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 12(3), 518–521 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Sato and T. Taira, “Comparative study on the spectroscopic properties of Nd:GdVO4 and Nd:YVO4 with hybrid process,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 613–620 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

P. Gerner, K. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Broad-band Cr5+-sensitized Er3+ luminescence in YVO4,” J. Lumin. 102–103, 112–118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) As-grown crystal Nd:Cr:YVO4 boule; (b) XRPD patterns of the Nd:Cr:YVO4 and standard data.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarized absorption spectra of Nd:Cr:YVO4 crystal before (a) and after (b) annealing.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Variation of the output power versus incident pump power with OC = 40% before annealing;(b) Pulse train with the repetition rate of 344.8 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Variation of the output power versus incident pump power with OC = 40% after annealing; (b) Pulse train with the repetition rate of 151.4 kHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Variation of the output power versus incident pump power with OC = 10% after annealing; (b) Pulse train with the repetition rate of 293 kHz.

Metrics