Abstract

We demonstrate the optical characteristics of YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor in close proximity to Ag nanofilm to create a highly efficient emitting layer in mirror-type self-emissive displays. The propagating surface plasmon mode induced between the dielectric layer (MgO) and the Ag nanofilm activates the electric dipole transition of Eu3+ ions. The transmittance of a 100 nm-thick Ag nanofilm is zero in the visible wavelength range, making this nanofilm a good reflector in the visible wavelength range and capable of fulfilling a mirror function. The emission of an YVO4:Eu3+ phosphor layer with a 100 nm-thick Ag nanofilm was enhanced to the point that it was eight times higher than that of a reference sample without Ag nanofilm. Therefore, the present work shows potential for application to mirror-type displays with high luminous efficacy.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Wager, “Applied physics. Transparent electronics,” Science 300(5623), 1245–1246 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(3), 172–174 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly Transparent SU-8 Photoresist Barrier Rib for a Transparent AC Plasma Display Panel,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology 7(1), 40–43 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Noginova, Y. Barnakov, H. Li, and M. A. Noginov, “Effect of metallic surface on electric dipole and magnetic dipole emission transitions in Eu3+ doped polymeric film,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10767–10772 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. M. Lee, K. C. Choi, D. H. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13209–13217 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. M. Lee and K. C. Choi, “Enhanced emission from BaMgAl10O17:Eu2+ by localized surface plasmon resonance of silver particles,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12144–12152 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. K. Levine and F. C. Palilla, “A new, highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4:Eu) for color television,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(6), 118 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).
  17. A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Editorial: Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly Transparent SU-8 Photoresist Barrier Rib for a Transparent AC Plasma Display Panel,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology 7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Lee, K. C. Choi, D. H. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13209–13217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Wager, “Applied physics. Transparent electronics,” Science 300(5623), 1245–1246 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Editorial: Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(3), 172–174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. K. Levine and F. C. Palilla, “A new, highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4:Eu) for color television,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(6), 118 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Au, J.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnakov, Y.

Becker, E.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blasse, G.

G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bril, A.

G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(3), 172–174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, K. C.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

S. R. Forrest, “The path to ubiquitous and low-cost organic electronic appliances on plastic,” Nature 428(6986), 911–918 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(3), 172–174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foster, D.

A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gates, H.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geddes, C. D.

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Editorial: Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Görrn, P.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, G.

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Gu, P. E. Burrows, S. Venkatesh, S. R. Forrest, and M. E. Thompson, “Vacuum-deposited, nonpolymeric flexible organic light-emitting devices,” Opt. Lett. 22(3), 172–174 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, W. B.

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Jeon, D. Y.

S. M. Lee, K. C. Choi, D. H. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Localized surface plasmon enhanced cathodoluminescence from Eu3+-doped phosphor near the nanoscaled silver particles,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13209–13217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Johannes, H. H.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Kazlas, P.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. H.

Kim, J. Y.

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Kirby, A. F.

A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, M.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Editorial: Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. M.

Lee, S.-M.

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly Transparent SU-8 Photoresist Barrier Rib for a Transparent AC Plasma Display Panel,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology 7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leonenko, Z.

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, A. K.

A. K. Levine and F. C. Palilla, “A new, highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4:Eu) for color television,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(6), 118 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

McCreary, M.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nazarov, M.

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Nieuwpoort, W. C.

G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

Noginova, N.

Oh, S. H.

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly Transparent SU-8 Photoresist Barrier Rib for a Transparent AC Plasma Display Panel,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology 7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palilla, F. C.

A. K. Levine and F. C. Palilla, “A new, highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4:Eu) for color television,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(6), 118 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, F. S.

A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Riedl, T.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ritenour, A.

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sander, M.

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z.

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced super bright InGaN light emitter,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(7), 2841–2844 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

Venkatesh, S.

Wager, J. F.

J. F. Wager, “Applied physics. Transparent electronics,” Science 300(5623), 1245–1246 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

G. Gu, Z. Shen, P. E. Burrows, and S. R. Forrest, “Transparent flexible organic light‐emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 9(9), 725–728 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Görrn, M. Sander, J. Meyer, M. Kröger, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, and T. Riedl, “Towards See‐Through Displays: Fully Transparent Thin‐Film Transistors Driving Transparent Organic Light‐Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 18(6), 738–741 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. K. Levine and F. C. Palilla, “A new, highly efficient red-emitting cathodoluminescent phosphor (YVO4:Eu) for color television,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 5(6), 118 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. F. Kirby, D. Foster, and F. S. Richardson, “Comparison of 7FJ←5DO emission spectra for Eu (III) in crystalline environments of octahedral, near-octahedral, and trigonal symmetry,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 95(6), 507–512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology (1)

S.-M. Lee, S. H. Oh, and K. C. Choi, “Highly Transparent SU-8 Photoresist Barrier Rib for a Transparent AC Plasma Display Panel,” IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology 7(1), 40–43 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluoresc. (2)

K. Aslan, Z. Leonenko, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, “Annealed silver-island films for applications in metal-enhanced fluorescence: interpretation in terms of radiating plasmons,” J. Fluoresc. 15(5), 643–654 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Geddes and J. R. Lakowicz, “Editorial: Metal-enhanced fluorescence,” J. Fluoresc. 12(2), 121–129 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

G. Blasse, A. Bril, and W. C. Nieuwpoort, “On the Eu3+ fluorescence in mixed metal oxides: Part I-The crystal structure sensitivity of thr intensity ratio of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27(10), 1587–1592 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

J. H. Kang, M. Nazarov, W. B. Im, J. Y. Kim, and D. Y. Jeon, “Characterization of nano-size YVO4:Eu and (Y,Gd)VO4:Eu phosphors by low voltage cathodo- and photoluminescence,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23(2), 843–848 (2005).

Nature (2)

Y. Chen, J. Au, P. Kazlas, A. Ritenour, H. Gates, and M. McCreary, “Electronic paper: Flexible active-matrix electronic ink display,” Nature 423(6936), 136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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