Abstract

An electrically tunable focusing LC lens with a low voltage and simple planar electrodes is demonstrated. The inhomogeneous electric field of the LC lens without any hole-patterned-electrode is generated by using an embedded polymeric layer with a gradient distribution of dielectric constants (or relative permittivity). LC directors in the LC layer experience spatially inhomogeneous voltages even though a single voltage is applied to the planar electrodes. Such a LC lens has a low voltage (~2.6 Vrms) and simple design of electrodes. The gradient distribution of dielectric constants of polymeric layer is discussed and the performance of the LC lens is investigated. The applications of such a LC lens are cell phones, webcam, and pico projectors.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

H. C. Lin, M. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12, 234–240 (2011).

Y. H. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. C. Lin, “An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4714–4721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Asatryan, V. Presnyakov, A. Tork, A. Zohrabyan, A. Bagramyan, and T. Galstian, “Optical lens with electrically variable focus using an optically hidden dielectric structure,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13981–13992 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing pico-projector adopting a liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fraval and J. L. D. de la Tocnaye, “Low aberrations symmetrical adaptive modal liquid crystal lens with short focal lengths,” Appl. Opt. 49(15), 2778–2783 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with focal length variable from negative to positive values,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 79–81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with stacked structure of liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Commun. 250(4-6), 266–273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Chen, K. R. Sarma, and A. Kolosovskaya, “Capacitance–voltage characteristics of liquid crystal displays with periodic interdigital electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 147–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1979

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, K.

Ayras, P.

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ayräs, P.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagramyan, A.

Bhattacharya, S.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chao, P. C. P.

Chen, C. J.

C. J. Chen, K. R. Sarma, and A. Kolosovskaya, “Capacitance–voltage characteristics of liquid crystal displays with periodic interdigital electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 147–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. S.

Y. H. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. C. Lin, “An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4714–4721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin, M. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12, 234–240 (2011).

Chiu, C. W.

Clark, P.

de la Tocnaye, J. L. D.

Dias, D.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dodge, M. R.

Fan, Y. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.

Fraval, N.

Fuh, A. Y. G.

Galstian, T.

Ge, Z.

Giridhar, M. S.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Glockner, R.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Guralnik, I.

Guralnik, I. R.

Haddock, J. N.

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hain, M.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, N.

Kolosovskaya, A.

C. J. Chen, K. R. Sarma, and A. Kolosovskaya, “Capacitance–voltage characteristics of liquid crystal displays with periodic interdigital electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 147–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kotova, S.

Kvashnin, M.

Li, G. Q.

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. C. Lin, “An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4714–4721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin, M. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12, 234–240 (2011).

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing pico-projector adopting a liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Lin, Y. H.

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin, M. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12, 234–240 (2011).

Y. H. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. C. Lin, “An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4714–4721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing pico-projector adopting a liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loktev, M.

Loktev, M. Y.

Love, G.

Love, G. D.

Mathine, D. L.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meredith, G.

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meredith, G. R.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naumov, A.

Naumov, A. F.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyman, G.

Presnyakov, V.

Rakhmatulin, M.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H. W.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sarma, K. R.

C. J. Chen, K. R. Sarma, and A. Kolosovskaya, “Capacitance–voltage characteristics of liquid crystal displays with periodic interdigital electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 147–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with focal length variable from negative to positive values,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 79–81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with stacked structure of liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Commun. 250(4-6), 266–273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Saunter, C.

Schwiegerling, J.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stankovic, S.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toporkova, L.

Tork, A.

Tschudi, T.

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valley, P.

P. Valley, D. L. Mathine, M. R. Dodge, J. Schwiegerling, G. Peyman, and N. Peyghambarian, “Tunable-focus flat liquid-crystal diffractive lens,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 336–338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vdovin, G.

Vladimirov, F. L.

Wang, B.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with focal length variable from negative to positive values,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 79–81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with stacked structure of liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Commun. 250(4-6), 266–273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C. H.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Williby, G.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yanase, S.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, M.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with focal length variable from negative to positive values,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 79–81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with stacked structure of liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Commun. 250(4-6), 266–273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zayakin, O.

Zhao, Y.

Zohrabyan, A.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. W. Ren, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(8), 1515–1517 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “A fast response and large electrically tunable-focusing imaging system based on switching of two modes of a liquid crystal lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(6), 063505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, M. S. Giridhar, D. L. Mathine, G. Meredith, J. N. Haddock, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Large-aperture switchable thin diffractive lens with interleaved electrode patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Li, P. Valley, P. Ayras, D. L. Mathine, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “High-efficiency switchable flat diffractive ophthalmic lens with three-layer electrode pattern and two-layer via structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(11), 111105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lens with a built-in planar polymeric lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chen, K. R. Sarma, and A. Kolosovskaya, “Capacitance–voltage characteristics of liquid crystal displays with periodic interdigital electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 147–149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, Y. H. Fan, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, C. H. Wen, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent phase modulation of a homeotropic liquid crystal gel,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, Y. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulators using double-layered liquid crystal gels,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with focal length variable from negative to positive values,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(1), 79–81 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Fan, Y. H. Wu, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent and fast-response phase modulation using a normal-mode polymer-stabilized cholesteric texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Ye, B. Wang, M. Uchida, S. Yanase, S. Takahashi, M. Yamaguchi, and S. Sato, “Low-voltage-driving liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 100204 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Lin and Y. H. Lin, “An electrically tunable focusing pico-projector adopting a liquid crystal lens,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Sato, “Liquid-crystal lens-cells with variable focal length,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18(9), 1679–1684 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ye and S. Sato, “Optical properties of liquid crystal lens of any size,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41(5B), L571–L573 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

B. Wang, M. Ye, and S. Sato, “Liquid crystal lens with stacked structure of liquid-crystal layers,” Opt. Commun. 250(4-6), 266–273 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hain, R. Glockner, S. Bhattacharya, D. Dias, S. Stankovic, and T. Tschudi, “Fast switching liquid crystal lenses for a dual focus digital versatile disc pickup,” Opt. Commun. 188(5-6), 291–299 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y. H. Lin, H. Ren, Y. H. Wu, Y. Zhao, J. Fang, Z. Ge, and S. T. Wu, “Polarization-independent liquid crystal phase modulator using a thin polymer-separated double-layered structure,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8746–8752 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Asatryan, V. Presnyakov, A. Tork, A. Zohrabyan, A. Bagramyan, and T. Galstian, “Optical lens with electrically variable focus using an optically hidden dielectric structure,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13981–13992 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ye, B. Wang, and S. Sato, “Realization of liquid crystal lens of large aperture and low driving voltages using thin layer of weakly conductive material,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4302–4308 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Chiu, Y. C. Lin, P. C. P. Chao, and A. Y. G. Fuh, “Achieving high focusing power for a large-aperture liquid crystal lens with novel hole-and-ring electrodes,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19277–19284 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Naumov, G. D. Love, M. Y. Loktev, and F. L. Vladimirov, “Control optimization of spherical modal liquid crystal lenses,” Opt. Express 4(9), 344–352 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kotova, M. Kvashnin, M. Rakhmatulin, O. Zayakin, I. Guralnik, N. Klimov, P. Clark, G. Love, A. Naumov, C. Saunter, M. Loktev, G. Vdovin, and L. Toporkova, “Modal liquid crystal wavefront corrector,” Opt. Express 10(22), 1258–1272 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. H. Lin, M. S. Chen, and H. C. Lin, “An electrically tunable optical zoom system using two composite liquid crystal lenses with a large zoom ratio,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4714–4721 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

G. Q. Li, D. L. Mathine, P. Valley, P. Ayräs, J. N. Haddock, M. S. Giridhar, G. Williby, J. Schwiegerling, G. R. Meredith, B. Kippelen, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Switchable electro-optic diffractive lens with high efficiency for ophthalmic applications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(16), 6100–6104 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater.

H. C. Lin, M. S. Chen, and Y. H. Lin, “A review of electrically tunable focusing liquid crystal lenses,” Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 12, 234–240 (2011).

Other

D. K. Yang and S. T. Wu, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Chichester, 2006), Chap. 12.

I. C. Khoo and S. T. Wu, Optical and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific Ltd. London, 1993), Chap. 2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The structure of the liquid crystal lens at (a) voltage-off state and (b) voltage-on state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fabrication process of the LC lens. (a) NOA81 under UV exposure. (b) Mixture filling and then UV exposure. (c) Peel off the substrates. (d) Cell assembling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The phase profiles of the LC lens at (a) 0 Vrms and (b) 2.6 Vrms (f = 1kHz). λ = 532 nm. P: the transmission axis of the polarizer, A: the transmission axis of the analyzer, R: the direction of alignment of the substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The focal length of the LC lens as a function of the applied voltage (blue dots) and the focal length of the LC layer as a function of the applied voltage (pink triangles). (f = 1kHz).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The distribution of the relative permittivity of the polymeric layer.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase distribution of the LC layer at 0 Vrms (red dotted line), 1.4 Vrms (blue triangles), 2.6 Vrms (black squares). (f = 1kHz).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image performance of the LC lens at (a) 0 and (b) 2.6 Vrms. (f = 1kHz).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 f(V) = 1 f LC (V) + 1 f p ,
V LC (r)=V× 1/ C LC (r) 1/ C p (r)+1/ C LC (r) .
V LC (r)=V× d LC / ε LC (r) d p / ε p (r)+ d LC / ε LC (r) .
Δ V LC =V× d LC / ε LC d p / ε p (r)+ d LC / ε LC V× d LC / ε LC d p / ε p (0)+ d LC / ε LC .
Δ V LC = V× ε LC ×Δ ε p [ ε LC + ε p (r)]×[ ε LC + ε p (0)] .
ε p (r)= ε // sin 2 θ(r)+ ε cos 2 θ(r),
1 n (r) 2 = cos 2 θ(r) n pe 2 + sin 2 θ(r) n po 2 ,

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