Abstract

A combined method of modified oblique-angle deposition and hydrothermal growth was adopted to grow an optically anisotropic nanomaterial based on single crystalline ZnO nanowire arrays (NWAs) with highly oblique angles (75°–85°), exhibiting giant in-plane birefringence and optical polarization degree in emission. The in-plane birefringence of oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs is almost one order of magnitude higher than that of natural quartz. The strong optical anisotropy in emission due to the optical confinement was observed. The oblique-aligned NWAs not only allow important technological applications in passive photonic components but also benefit the development of the optoelectronic devices in polarized light sensing and emission.

© 2012 OSA

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2011

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Giant Efficiency Enhancement of GaAs Solar Cells with Graded Antireflection Layers Based on Syringelike ZnO Nanorod Arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen, D. H. Lien, Y. Ding, and J. H. He, “Photoconductive enhancement of single ZnO nanowire through localized Schottky effects,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14836–14841 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, P. W. Wang, Y. B. Zhou, X. B. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. S. Wu, L. Dai, J. Xu, L. W. Sang, J. J. Deng, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4284–4287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Briseno, T. W. Holcombe, A. I. Boukai, E. C. Garnett, S. W. Shelton, J. J. Fréchet, and P. Yang, “Oligo- and polythiophene/ZnO hybrid nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 334–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lai, Y. I. Shih, Y. C. Lin, J. H. He, and C. P. Liu, “Large-area oblique-aligned ZnO nanowires through a continuously bent columnar buffer: growth, microstructure, and antireflection,” Cryst. Growth Des. 10(8), 3297–3301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zhang, A. Lutich, J. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Susha, A. Rogach, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Optical anisotropy of semiconductor nanowires beyond the electrostatic limit,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Giblin, V. Protasenko, and M. Kuno, “Wavelength sensitivity of single nanowire excitation polarization anisotropies explained through a generalized treatment of their linear absorption,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1979–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Li, S. Rühle, R. Khedoe, A. F. Koenderink, and D. Vanmaekelbergh, “Polarization, microscopic origin, and mode structure of luminescence and lasing from single ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(10), 3515–3520 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Y. D. Gu, Y. F. Hu, W. J. Mai, P. H. Yeh, G. Bao, A. K. Sood, D. L. Polla, and Z. L. Wang, “Gigantic enhancement in response and reset time of ZnO UV nanosensor by utilizing Schottky contact and surface functionalization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. He, P. H. Chang, C. Y. Chen, and K. T. Tsai, “Electrical and optoelectronic characterization of a ZnO nanowire contacted by focused-ion-beam-deposited Pt,” Nanotechnology 20(13), 135701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Celo, E. Post, M. Summers, T. Smy, M. J. Brett, and J. Albert, “Interferometric sensing platform with dielectric nanostructured thin films,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6655–6664 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Xiao, G. P. Dong, Z. X. Fan, K. Yi, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “A facile process to improve linear birefringence of SiO2 thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Qi, X. Xiao, H. He, K. Yi, and Z. Fan, “Optical properties and microstructure of Ta2O5 biaxial film,” Appl. Opt. 48(1), 127–133 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. D. Harris, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, D. J. Broer, and M. J. Brett, “A birefringent and transparent electrical conductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(15), 2147–2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, M. H. M. van Weert, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivas, “Epitaxial growth of aligned semiconductor nanowire metamaterials for photonic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1039–1046 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, Y. C. Yang, H. W. Lin, S. C. Chang, and S. Gwo, “Polarized photoluminescence from single GaN nanorods: effects of optical confinement,” Opt. Express 16(17), 13465–13475 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, H. W. Lin, C. Y. Wu, W. C. Chen, J. S. Chen, and S. Gwo, “Gallium nitride nanorod arrays as low-refractive-index transparent media in the entire visible spectral region,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8106–8116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. Szeto, P. C. P. Hrudey, J. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Obliquely deposited tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) biaxial thin films with negative in-plane birefringence,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 457–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Klingshirn, “ZnO: material, physics and applications,” ChemPhysChem 8(6), 782–803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. He, S. T. Ho, T. B. Wu, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrical and Photoelectrical Performances of Nano-Photodiode Based on ZnO Nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 435(1-3), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wang, G. D. Xia, X. Y. Fu, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by glancing angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3352–3355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivasa, “Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Shan, Z. Liu, and S. K. Hark, “Photoluminescence polarization in individual CdSe nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 74(15), 153402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Pettersson, J. Trägårdh, A. I. Persson, L. Landin, D. Hessman, and L. Samuelson, “Infrared photodetectors in heterostructure nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 229–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in thick semiconducting nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 024314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. E. Ruda and A. Shik, “Polarization-sensitive optical phenomena in semiconducting and metallic nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, and P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Jellison and C. M. Rouleau, “Determination of optical birefringence by using off-axis transmission ellipsometry,” Appl. Opt. 44(16), 3153–3159 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Markham, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Smith, X. Li, T. Gabriel, G. S. Attard, and I. Nandhakumar, “Birefringent cadmium–telluride-based metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kotlyar, L. Bolla, M. Midrio, L. O’Faolain, and T. Krauss, “Compact polarization converter in InP-based material,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5040–5045 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Artigas and L. Torner, “Dyakonov surface waves in photonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 013901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. J. A. de Dood, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, “Nonlinear photonic crystals as a source of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(4), 040504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gu, I. Kuskovsky, M. Yin, S. O’Brien, and G. F. Neumark, “Quantum Confinement in ZnO Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. C. Johnson, H. Yan, P. Yang, and R. J. Saykally, “Optical cavity effects in ZnO nanowire lasers and waveguides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(34), 8816–8828 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Qi, A. M. Belcher, and J. M. White, “Spectroscopy of individual silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2616–2618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

Y. J. Jen, C. C. Lee, and Y. M. Chang, “Reflection property of anisotropic films: comparison of symmetric and asymmetric theories using attenuated total reflection,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 481–484 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

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W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, “Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58(6), 853–857 (1997).
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1960

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Aplin, D. P. R.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
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M. L. Markham, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Smith, X. Li, T. Gabriel, G. S. Attard, and I. Nandhakumar, “Birefringent cadmium–telluride-based metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011912 (2005).
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Bacsa, W. S.

W. A. deHeer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Châtelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned carbon nanotube films: production and optical and electronic properties,” Science 268(5212), 845–847 (1995).
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O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, M. H. M. van Weert, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivas, “Epitaxial growth of aligned semiconductor nanowire metamaterials for photonic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1039–1046 (2008).
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J. Zhou, Y. D. Gu, Y. F. Hu, W. J. Mai, P. H. Yeh, G. Bao, A. K. Sood, D. L. Polla, and Z. L. Wang, “Gigantic enhancement in response and reset time of ZnO UV nanosensor by utilizing Schottky contact and surface functionalization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191103 (2009).
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Bao, X. Y.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
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Baumberg, J. J.

M. L. Markham, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Smith, X. Li, T. Gabriel, G. S. Attard, and I. Nandhakumar, “Birefringent cadmium–telluride-based metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011912 (2005).
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J. Qi, A. M. Belcher, and J. M. White, “Spectroscopy of individual silicon nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(16), 2616–2618 (2003).
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Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, P. W. Wang, Y. B. Zhou, X. B. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. S. Wu, L. Dai, J. Xu, L. W. Sang, J. J. Deng, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4284–4287 (2010).
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Boatner, L. A.

G. E. Jellison and L. A. Boatner, “Optical functions of uniaxial ZnO determined by generalized ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58(7), 3586–3589 (1998).
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Bolla, L.

Borgström, M. T.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, M. H. M. van Weert, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivas, “Epitaxial growth of aligned semiconductor nanowire metamaterials for photonic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1039–1046 (2008).
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O. L. Muskens, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivasa, “Giant optical birefringence in ensembles of semiconductor nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233117 (2006).
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A. L. Briseno, T. W. Holcombe, A. I. Boukai, E. C. Garnett, S. W. Shelton, J. J. Fréchet, and P. Yang, “Oligo- and polythiophene/ZnO hybrid nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 334–340 (2010).
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M. J. A. de Dood, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, “Nonlinear photonic crystals as a source of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(4), 040504 (2004).
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D. Celo, E. Post, M. Summers, T. Smy, M. J. Brett, and J. Albert, “Interferometric sensing platform with dielectric nanostructured thin films,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6655–6664 (2009).
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B. Szeto, P. C. P. Hrudey, J. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Obliquely deposited tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) biaxial thin films with negative in-plane birefringence,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 457–462 (2007).
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A. L. Briseno, T. W. Holcombe, A. I. Boukai, E. C. Garnett, S. W. Shelton, J. J. Fréchet, and P. Yang, “Oligo- and polythiophene/ZnO hybrid nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 334–340 (2010).
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K. D. Harris, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, D. J. Broer, and M. J. Brett, “A birefringent and transparent electrical conductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(15), 2147–2153 (2008).
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Chang, H. C.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Giant Efficiency Enhancement of GaAs Solar Cells with Graded Antireflection Layers Based on Syringelike ZnO Nanorod Arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. H.

J. H. He, P. H. Chang, C. Y. Chen, and K. T. Tsai, “Electrical and optoelectronic characterization of a ZnO nanowire contacted by focused-ion-beam-deposited Pt,” Nanotechnology 20(13), 135701 (2009).
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Chang, S. C.

Chang, Y. M.

Y. J. Jen, C. C. Lee, and Y. M. Chang, “Reflection property of anisotropic films: comparison of symmetric and asymmetric theories using attenuated total reflection,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 4(4), 481–484 (2002).
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W. A. deHeer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Châtelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned carbon nanotube films: production and optical and electronic properties,” Science 268(5212), 845–847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

H. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lai, Y. I. Shih, Y. C. Lin, J. H. He, and C. P. Liu, “Large-area oblique-aligned ZnO nanowires through a continuously bent columnar buffer: growth, microstructure, and antireflection,” Cryst. Growth Des. 10(8), 3297–3301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen, D. H. Lien, Y. Ding, and J. H. He, “Photoconductive enhancement of single ZnO nanowire through localized Schottky effects,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14836–14841 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. He, P. H. Chang, C. Y. Chen, and K. T. Tsai, “Electrical and optoelectronic characterization of a ZnO nanowire contacted by focused-ion-beam-deposited Pt,” Nanotechnology 20(13), 135701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

Chen, J. S.

Chen, L. J.

J. H. He, S. T. Ho, T. B. Wu, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrical and Photoelectrical Performances of Nano-Photodiode Based on ZnO Nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 435(1-3), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. W.

Chen, W. C.

Cheng, J.

A. C. van Popta, J. Cheng, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(1), 013517 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires,” Science 293(5534), 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, P. W. Wang, Y. B. Zhou, X. B. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. S. Wu, L. Dai, J. Xu, L. W. Sang, J. J. Deng, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4284–4287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayeh, S. A.

C. Soci, A. Zhang, B. Xiang, S. A. Dayeh, D. P. R. Aplin, J. Park, X. Y. Bao, Y. H. Lo, and D. Wang, “ZnO nanowire UV photodetectors with high internal gain,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 1003–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Dood, M. J. A.

M. J. A. de Dood, W. T. M. Irvine, and D. Bouwmeester, “Nonlinear photonic crystals as a source of entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(4), 040504 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

deHeer, W. A.

W. A. deHeer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Châtelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned carbon nanotube films: production and optical and electronic properties,” Science 268(5212), 845–847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, J. J.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, P. W. Wang, Y. B. Zhou, X. B. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. S. Wu, L. Dai, J. Xu, L. W. Sang, J. J. Deng, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4284–4287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

O. L. Muskens, S. L. Diedenhofen, M. H. M. van Weert, M. T. Borgström, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and J. G. Rivas, “Epitaxial growth of aligned semiconductor nanowire metamaterials for photonic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(7), 1039–1046 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diener, J.

Ding, Y.

Djurišic, A. B.

A. B. Djurišić and Y. H. Leung, “Optical properties of ZnO nanostructures,” Small 2(8-9), 944–961 (2006).
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Dong, G. P.

X. D. Xiao, G. P. Dong, Z. X. Fan, K. Yi, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “A facile process to improve linear birefringence of SiO2 thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires,” Science 293(5534), 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, Z.

Fan, Z. X.

X. D. Xiao, G. P. Dong, Z. X. Fan, K. Yi, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “A facile process to improve linear birefringence of SiO2 thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165305 (2009).
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S. M. Wang, G. D. Xia, X. Y. Fu, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by glancing angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3352–3355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, X. S.

T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

A. A. Zhang, A. Lutich, J. Rodríguez-Fernández, A. Susha, A. Rogach, F. Jäckel, and J. Feldmann, “Optical anisotropy of semiconductor nanowires beyond the electrostatic limit,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155301 (2010).
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Feng, D.

W. S. Hu, Z. G. Liu, J. Sun, S. N. Zhu, Q. Q. Xu, D. Feng, and Z. M. Ji, “Optical properties of pulsed laser deposited ZnO thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58(6), 853–857 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Forro, L.

W. A. deHeer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Châtelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned carbon nanotube films: production and optical and electronic properties,” Science 268(5212), 845–847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fréchet, J. J.

A. L. Briseno, T. W. Holcombe, A. I. Boukai, E. C. Garnett, S. W. Shelton, J. J. Fréchet, and P. Yang, “Oligo- and polythiophene/ZnO hybrid nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 334–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, P. H.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Giant Efficiency Enhancement of GaAs Solar Cells with Graded Antireflection Layers Based on Syringelike ZnO Nanorod Arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X. Y.

S. M. Wang, G. D. Xia, X. Y. Fu, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by glancing angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3352–3355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

Gabriel, T.

M. L. Markham, J. J. Baumberg, D. C. Smith, X. Li, T. Gabriel, G. S. Attard, and I. Nandhakumar, “Birefringent cadmium–telluride-based metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 011912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J. Y.

P. J. Li, Z. M. Liao, X. Z. Zhang, X. J. Zhang, H. C. Zhu, J. Y. Gao, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, N. Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2513–2518 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garnett, E. C.

A. L. Briseno, T. W. Holcombe, A. I. Boukai, E. C. Garnett, S. W. Shelton, J. J. Fréchet, and P. Yang, “Oligo- and polythiophene/ZnO hybrid nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 334–340 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerfin, T.

W. A. deHeer, W. S. Bacsa, A. Châtelain, T. Gerfin, R. Humphrey-Baker, L. Forro, and D. Ugarte, “Aligned carbon nanotube films: production and optical and electronic properties,” Science 268(5212), 845–847 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giblin, J.

J. Giblin, V. Protasenko, and M. Kuno, “Wavelength sensitivity of single nanowire excitation polarization anisotropies explained through a generalized treatment of their linear absorption,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1979–1987 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golberg, D.

T. Y. Zhai, X. S. Fang, M. Y. Liao, X. J. Xu, H. Zeng, B. Yoshio, and D. Golberg, “A comprehensive review of one-dimensional metal-oxide nanostructure photodetectors,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 9(8), 6504–6529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, and P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gospodyn, J.

B. Szeto, P. C. P. Hrudey, J. Gospodyn, J. C. Sit, and M. J. Brett, “Obliquely deposited tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3) biaxial thin films with negative in-plane birefringence,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(5), 457–462 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greene, L. E.

L. E. Greene, M. Law, D. H. Tan, M. Montano, J. Goldberger, G. Somorjai, and P. Yang, “General route to vertical ZnO nanowire arrays using textured ZnO seeds,” Nano Lett. 5(7), 1231–1236 (2005).
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Gross, E.

Gu, Y.

Y. Gu, I. Kuskovsky, M. Yin, S. O’Brien, and G. F. Neumark, “Quantum Confinement in ZnO Nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3833 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y. D.

J. Zhou, Y. D. Gu, Y. F. Hu, W. J. Mai, P. H. Yeh, G. Bao, A. K. Sood, D. L. Polla, and Z. L. Wang, “Gigantic enhancement in response and reset time of ZnO UV nanosensor by utilizing Schottky contact and surface functionalization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(19), 191103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudiksen, M. S.

J. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, “Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires,” Science 293(5534), 1455–1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwo, S.

Han, X. B.

Y. Q. Bie, Z. M. Liao, P. W. Wang, Y. B. Zhou, X. B. Han, Y. Ye, Q. Zhao, X. S. Wu, L. Dai, J. Xu, L. W. Sang, J. J. Deng, K. Laurent, Y. Leprince-Wang, and D. P. Yu, “Single ZnO nanowire/p-type GaN heterojunctions for photovoltaic devices and UV light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(38), 4284–4287 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hark, S. K.

C. X. Shan, Z. Liu, and S. K. Hark, “Photoluminescence polarization in individual CdSe nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 74(15), 153402 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harris, K. D.

K. D. Harris, A. C. van Popta, J. C. Sit, D. J. Broer, and M. J. Brett, “A birefringent and transparent electrical conductor,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(15), 2147–2153 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

He, H. B.

X. D. Xiao, G. P. Dong, Z. X. Fan, K. Yi, H. B. He, and J. D. Shao, “A facile process to improve linear birefringence of SiO2 thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(16), 165305 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Wang, G. D. Xia, X. Y. Fu, H. B. He, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Preparation and characterization of nanostructured ZrO2 thin films by glancing angle deposition,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3352–3355 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, J. H.

L. K. Yeh, K. Y. Lai, G. J. Lin, P. H. Fu, H. C. Chang, C. A. Lin, and J. H. He, “Giant Efficiency Enhancement of GaAs Solar Cells with Graded Antireflection Layers Based on Syringelike ZnO Nanorod Arrays,” Adv. Energy Mater. 1(4), 506–510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Chen, C. Y. Chen, D. H. Lien, Y. Ding, and J. H. He, “Photoconductive enhancement of single ZnO nanowire through localized Schottky effects,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14836–14841 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Huang, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Lai, Y. I. Shih, Y. C. Lin, J. H. He, and C. P. Liu, “Large-area oblique-aligned ZnO nanowires through a continuously bent columnar buffer: growth, microstructure, and antireflection,” Cryst. Growth Des. 10(8), 3297–3301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. He, P. H. Chang, C. Y. Chen, and K. T. Tsai, “Electrical and optoelectronic characterization of a ZnO nanowire contacted by focused-ion-beam-deposited Pt,” Nanotechnology 20(13), 135701 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. He, S. T. Ho, T. B. Wu, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrical and Photoelectrical Performances of Nano-Photodiode Based on ZnO Nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 435(1-3), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, S.

S. Heavens, “Optical properties of thin films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23(1), 1–65 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Hessman, D.

H. Pettersson, J. Trägårdh, A. I. Persson, L. Landin, D. Hessman, and L. Samuelson, “Infrared photodetectors in heterostructure nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 229–232 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

J. H. He, S. T. Ho, T. B. Wu, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Electrical and Photoelectrical Performances of Nano-Photodiode Based on ZnO Nanowires,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 435(1-3), 119–122 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top-view SEM image of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs. (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of the ZnO NWAs. (c) HRTEM image of a ZnO NW.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectivity spectra of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs for s- and p-polarization at the AOI of 5°. The plane of incidence is aligned to the orientation of NWs. The s- and p-polarization is perpendicular and parallel to the azimuthal direction of the long axis of oblique-aligned NWAs, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Determination of the equivalent reflective index dispersion curve of the ZnO buffer layer. The inset is the comparison of simulated and experimental reflectivity spectra of the ZnO buffer layer on Si substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Determination of the equivalent reflective index dispersion curve of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs for the polarization (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the azimuthal direction of the long axis of oblique-aligned NWAs. (c) The in-plane birefringence of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs. The insets of (a) and (b) are the comparison of simulated and experimental reflectivity spectra of the NWAs on the ZnO buffer layer/Si substrate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The reflectivity of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs characterized with the polarization angles between 0° and 90° at the wavelength of 528 nm and the AOI of 5°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

PL spectra of the oblique-aligned ZnO NWAs at different polarization directions in (a) the NBE and (b) the DLE regions.

Equations (3)

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R = | r | 2 = | r 1 + r 2 ' e iφ 1 r 1 r 2 ' e iφ | 2
Δn= n (λ) n (λ)
ρ = I I I + I

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