Abstract

We describe fabrication of microstructures by two-photon polymerization using bursts of femtosecond laser pulses. With the aid of an acousto-optic modulator driven by a function generator, two-photon polymerization is performed at variable burst repetition rates. We investigate how the time between the bursts of laser pulses influences the ultimate dimensions of lines written in a photosensitive resin. We observe that when using the same laser fluence, polymer lines fabricated at different burst repetition rates have different dimensions. In particular, the widths of two-photon polymerized lines become smaller with decreasing burst repetition rates. Based on the thermal properties of the resin and experimental writing conditions, we attribute this effect to localized heat accumulation.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (2)

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast polymerization inhibition by stimulated emission depletion for three-dimensional nanolithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(10), OP65–OP69 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. P. Stocker, L. J. Li, R. R. Gattass, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton photoresists giving nanoscale resolution that is inversely dependent on exposure time,” Nat. Chem. 3(3), 225–227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malinauskas, P. Danilevičius, and S. Juodkazis, “Three-dimensional micro-/nano-structuring via direct write polymerization with picosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5602–5610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, “Designable 3D nanofabrication by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Nano Today 5(5), 435–448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Malinauskas, A. Zukauskas, G. Bickauskaite, R. Gadonas, and S. Juodkazis, “Mechanisms of three-dimensional structuring of photo-polymers by tightly focussed femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10209–10221 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 551–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of femtosecond-laser-structured PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of Microstructures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, T. Hasegawa, and N. Yoshimura, “Single-anchor support and supercritical CO2 drying enable high-precision microfabrication of three-dimensional structures,” Opt. Express 17(23), 20945–20951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Li, R. R. Gattass, E. Gershgoren, H. Hwang, and J. T. Fourkas, “Achieving lambda/20 resolution by one-color initiation and deactivation of polymerization,” Science 324(5929), 910–913 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maruo, A. Takaura, and Y. Saito, “Optically driven micropump with a twin spiral microrotor,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18525–18532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

S. Maruo and J. T. Fourkas, “Recent progress in multiphoton microfabrication,” Laser Photonics Rev. 2(1-2), 100–111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Li, E. Gershgoren, G. Kumi, W.-Y. Chen, P. T. Ho, W. N. Herman, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-performance microring resonators fabricated with multiphoton absoprtion polymerization,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(19), 3668–3671 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3426–3436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5279–5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long esposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 1796–1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (4)

H. B. Sun, T. Suwa, K. Takada, R. P. Zaccaria, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Shape precompesation in two-photon laser nanowriting of photonic lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3708–3710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Diffusion-limited photopolymerization in scanning micro-stereolithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(8), 1839–1842 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional focal spots related to two-photon excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3673–3675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(47), 11495–11501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Flach and R. P. Chartoff, “A process model for nonisothermal photopolymerization with a laser light source. I: basic model development,” Polym. Eng. Sci. 35(6), 483–492 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Decker, “Photoinitiated curing of multifunctional monomers,” Acta Polym. 45(5), 333–347 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andraud, C.

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anemian, R.

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A.

Baldacchini, T.

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of Microstructures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P. L.

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

Bastmeyer, M.

F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Belfield, K. D.

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Besley, N. A.

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bickauskaite, G.

Bityurin, N.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195430 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bouriau, M.

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S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long esposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
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Lin, B. C.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahrt, R. F.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malinauskas, M.

Marder, S. R.

Martineau, C.

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

Matousek, P.

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass, L. R. Cerami, and E. Mazur, “Micromachining of bulk glass with bursts of femtosecond laser pulses at variable repetition rates,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5279–5284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGarry, P. F.

S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(47), 11495–11501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, C. R.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mooney, D. J.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, J.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 551–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of femtosecond-laser-structured PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, M. J.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 1796–1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niu, L. G.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orie, A.

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal and optical properties of femtosecond-laser-structured PMMA,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 101(1), 27–31 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Morikawa, A. Orie, T. Hashimoto, and S. Juodkazis, “Thermal diffusivity in femtosecond-laser-structured micro-volumes of polymers,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 98(3), 551–556 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

Oubaha, M.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ovsianikov, A.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long esposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Parker, A. W.

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, J. W.

Pikulin, A.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pikulin and N. Bityurin, “Spatial resolution in polymerization of sample features at nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. B 75(19), 195430 (2007).
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Popall, M.

Potma, E. O.

T. Baldacchini, M. Zimmerley, C. H. Kuo, E. O. Potma, and R. Zadoyan, “Characterization of Microstructures Fabricated by Two-Photon Polymerization Using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 113(38), 12663–12668 (2009).
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Praino, J.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 1796–1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Purlys, V.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, F.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J. H.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, B. S.

F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

Sakellari, I.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saleh, B. E. A.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 1796–1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salis, G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

Seet, K. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, “Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist,” Nanotechnology 16(6), 846–849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serbin, J.

Shah, L.

Sluggett, G. W.

S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(47), 11495–11501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. G.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stocker, M. P.

M. P. Stocker, L. J. Li, R. R. Gattass, and J. T. Fourkas, “Multiphoton photoresists giving nanoscale resolution that is inversely dependent on exposure time,” Nat. Chem. 3(3), 225–227 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Striebel, T.

F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Diffusion-limited photopolymerization in scanning micro-stereolithography,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(8), 1839–1842 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. B. Sun, T. Suwa, K. Takada, R. P. Zaccaria, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Shape precompesation in two-photon laser nanowriting of photonic lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3708–3710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

Y. L. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, “Designable 3D nanofabrication by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Nano Today 5(5), 435–448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional focal spots related to two-photon excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3673–3675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suwa, T.

H. B. Sun, T. Suwa, K. Takada, R. P. Zaccaria, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Shape precompesation in two-photon laser nanowriting of photonic lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3708–3710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H. B. Sun, T. Suwa, K. Takada, R. P. Zaccaria, M. S. Kim, K. S. Lee, and S. Kawata, “Shape precompesation in two-photon laser nanowriting of photonic lattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3708–3710 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takaura, A.

Takeyasu, N.

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, D.

D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, “Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H.-B. Sun, and S. Kawata, “Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(2), 312–314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Three-dimensional focal spots related to two-photon excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(20), 3673–3675 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H.-B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, “Finer features for functional microdevices,” Nature 412(6848), 697–698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayalia, P.

P. Tayalia, C. R. Mendonca, T. Baldacchini, D. J. Mooney, and E. Mazur, “3D Cell-migration studies using two-photon engineered polymer scaffolds,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(23), 4494–4498 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teh, W. H.

W. H. Teh, U. Durig, G. Salis, R. Harbers, U. Drechsler, R. F. Mahrt, C. G. Smith, and H. J. Guntherodt, “SU-8 for real three-dimensional subdiffraction-limit two-photon microfabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(20), 4095–4097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

R. A. Farrer, C. N. LaFratta, L. Li, J. Praino, M. J. Naughton, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, and J. T. Fourkas, “Selective functionalization of 3-D polymer microstructures,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(6), 1796–1797 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Towrie, M.

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turro, N. J.

C. S. Colley, D. C. Grills, N. A. Besley, S. Jockusch, P. Matousek, A. W. Parker, M. Towrie, N. J. Turro, P. M. W. Gill, and M. W. George, “Probing the Reactivity of Photoinitiators for Free Radical Polymerization: Time-Resolved Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Benzoyl Radicals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(50), 14952–14958 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(47), 11495–11501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vamvakaki, M.

I. Sakellari, E. Kabouraki, D. Gray, V. Purlys, C. Fotakis, A. Pikulin, N. Bityurin, M. Vamvakaki, and M. Farsari, “Diffusion-assisted high-resolution direct femtosecond laser writing,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2302–2311 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viertl, J.

A. Ovsianikov, J. Viertl, B. Chichkov, M. Oubaha, B. MacCraith, I. Sakellari, A. Giakoumaki, D. Gray, M. Vamvakaki, M. Farsari, and C. Fotakis, “Ultra-low shrinkage hybrid photosensitive material for two-photon polymerization microfabrication,” ACS Nano 2(11), 2257–2262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, I.

C. Martineau, R. Anemian, C. Andraud, I. Wang, M. Bouriau, and P. L. Baldeck, “Efficient initiators for two-photon induced polymerization in the visible range,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 362(3-4), 291–295 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watkins, D. M.

S. Jockusch, I. V. Koptyug, P. F. McGarry, G. W. Sluggett, N. J. Turro, and D. M. Watkins, “A Steady-State and Picosecond Pump-Probe Investigation of the Photophysics of an Acyl and a Bis(acyl)phosphine Oxide,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119(47), 11495–11501 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

J. Fischer and M. Wegener, “Ultrafast polymerization inhibition by stimulated emission depletion for three-dimensional nanolithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(10), OP65–OP69 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Klein, B. S. Richter, T. Striebel, C. M. Franz, G. Freymann, M. Wegener, and M. Bastmeyer, “Two-component polymer scaffolds for controlled three-dimensional cell culture,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(11), 1341–1345 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional submicron structures using a continuous-wave laser at 532 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 221102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Fischer, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, “The materials challenge in diffraction-unlimited direct-laser-writing optical lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(32), 3578–3582 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications,” Nat. Mater. 3(7), 444–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

J. Wang, Y. He, H. Xia, L. G. Niu, R. Zhang, Q. D. Chen, Y. L. Zhang, Y. F. Li, S. J. Zeng, J. H. Qin, B. C. Lin, and H. B. Sun, “Embellishment of microfluidic devices via femtosecond laser micronanofabrication for chip functionalization,” Lab Chip 10(15), 1993–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Zhang, Q.-D. Chen, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, “Designable 3D nanofabrication by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Nano Today 5(5), 435–448 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J. F.

J. F. Xing, X. Z. Dong, W. Q. Chen, X. M. Duan, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Improving spatial resolution of two-photon microfabrication by using photoinitiator with high initiating efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yanez, C. O.

G. Kumi, C. O. Yanez, K. D. Belfield, and J. T. Fourkas, “High-speed multiphoton absorption polymerization: fabrication of microfluidic channels with arbitrary cross-sections and high aspect ratios,” Lab Chip 10(8), 1057–1060 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D. Y.

S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, “Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long esposure technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173133 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the device used to perform TPP with bursts of fs laser pulses. The input is the fs laser oscillator while the output is the laser beam directed into the microfabrication workstation. M, mirror; BS, beam sampler; PD, fast photodiode; L, lens; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; I, iris; FG, digital function generator. (b) Temporal profile of the laser intensity before and after the AOM-based device, and definitions of terms that characterize the burst mode laser micromachining. Each vertical red line represents one fs pulse.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top (a) and tilted (b) views of test samples recorded by SEM. Horizontal suspended lines are written under different experimental conditions (see text). The inset in (a) is a magnified view from above of representative lines used in this study.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Widths of polymerized lines as function of writing speed under different experimental conditions (full description of terms A to E is in Table 1). The same data is graphed in a semilogarithmic scale (b) where the square of the line widths are plotted in the abscissa and the scan speeds are plotted in the ordinate. The solid lines are linear regressions using Eq. (1).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Burst repetition rate (Rp) dependence of the polymerized line width measured at constant net fluence (NF). The vertical line indicates the value of the material cooling time obtained under the experimental conditions employed in this work. The abscissa is expressed also in terms of T in units of microseconds.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Parameters for TPP Excitationa

Equations (2)

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W= ω 0 2ln( 2 π P ω 0 v F th )
NF= 2 ω 0 R p v F burst

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