Abstract

Spatial-division multiplexing in the form of few-mode fibers has captured the attention of researchers since it is an attractive approach to significantly increase the channel capacity. However, the optical components employed in such systems introduce mode-dependent loss or gain (MDL) due to manufacturing imperfections, leading to significant system impairments. In this work the impact of MDL from optical amplifiers in few-mode fibers with either weak or strong mode coupling is analyzed for a 3x136-Gbit/s DP-QPSK mode-division multiplexed transmission system. It is shown that strong mode coupling reduces the impact of MDL in a similar manner as that polarization-dependent loss is reduced in single mode fibers by polarization-mode dispersion.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13250–13257 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. J. Winzer and G. J. Foschini, “MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16680–16696 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.1.
  5. S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.5.
  6. P. M. Krummrich, “Optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16636–16652 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  8. B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.C.3.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. R. Ryf, R. Essiambre, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, and P. Winzer, “Analysis of mode-dependent gain in raman amplified few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW1D.2.
  14. Y. Yung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Anirban, D. Giles, I. Giles, J. Sahu, L. Grüner-Nielsen, F. Poletti, and D. Richardson, “First demonstration of multimode amplifier for spatial division multiplexed transmission systems,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.4.
  15. K.-P. Ho and J. M. Kahn, “Frequency Diversity in Mode-Division Multiplexing Systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(24), 3719–3726 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Lobato, F. Ferreira, M. Kuschnerov, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mode coupling on the mode-dependent loss tolerance in few-mode fiber transmission,” in 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.C.3.
  17. D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).
  19. T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. W. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DMD, low mode coupling and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5A.1.
  22. K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, and R. Sugizaki, “Optimizing 2 mode fibers with Aeff of 170?m2 for LP01 mode and studying a possibility of realizing endlessly 2 mode operation using holey fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.16.
  23. F. Ferreira, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Semi-analytical model for linear modal coupling in few-mode fiber transmission,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A1.5.
  24. M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Benvenuto and G. Cherubini, Algorithms for Communications Systems and their Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).
  26. M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (4)

R.-J. Essiambre, G. Kramer, P. J. Winzer, G. J. Foschini, and B. Goebel, “Capacity limits of optical fiber networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 662–701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Yaman, N. Bai, B. Zhu, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Long distance transmission in few-mode fibers,” Opt. Express 18(12), 13250–13257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, S.

Alfiad, M. S.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bai, N.

Chouayakh, M.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D.

D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cox, D. C.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Man, E.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Essiambre, R.-J.

Ferreira, F.

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foschini, G. J.

Goebel, B.

Hanik, N.

Ho, K.-P.

Inan, B.

Jansen, S.

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

Kahn, J. M.

Kainzmaier, P.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

Krummrich, P. M.

Kuschnerov, M.

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lankl, B.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Lobato, A.

Monteiro, P.

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, A.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piyawanno, K.

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidl, T. M.

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silva, H.

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Spinnler, B.

B. Inan, B. Spinnler, F. Ferreira, D. van den Borne, A. Lobato, S. Adhikari, V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, M. Kuschnerov, N. Hanik, and S. L. Jansen, “DSP complexity of mode-division multiplexed receivers,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10859–10869 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van den Borne, D.

Wang, T.

Winzer, P. J.

Yaman, F.

Zhu, B.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, E. de Man, P. Kainzmaier, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “Data-aided versus blind single-carrier coherent receivers,” IEEE Photon. J. 2(3), 387–403 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Kuschnerov, M. Chouayakh, K. Piyawanno, B. Spinnler, M. S. Alfiad, A. Napoli, and B. Lankl, “On the performance of coherent systems in the presence of polarization-dependent loss for linear and maximum likelihood receivers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(12), 920–922 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferreira, S. Jansen, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Nonlinear semi-analytical model for simulation of few-mode-fiber transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 240–242 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

T. M. Schmidl and D. C. Cox, “Robust frequency and timing synchronization for OFDM,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 45(12), 1613–1621 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

D. Chu, “Polyphase codes with good periodic correlation properties,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 18(4), 531–532 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Express (5)

Other (14)

N. Bai, E. Ip, Y. Luo, G.-D. Peng, T. Wang, and G. Li, “Experimental study on multimode fiber amplifier using modal reconfigurable pump,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW1D.3.

R. Ryf, R. Essiambre, J. von Hoyningen-Huene, and P. Winzer, “Analysis of mode-dependent gain in raman amplified few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OW1D.2.

Y. Yung, S. Alam, Z. Li, A. Anirban, D. Giles, I. Giles, J. Sahu, L. Grüner-Nielsen, F. Poletti, and D. Richardson, “First demonstration of multimode amplifier for spatial division multiplexed transmission systems,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.K.4.

A. Lobato, F. Ferreira, M. Kuschnerov, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, B. Spinnler, and B. Lankl, “Impact of mode coupling on the mode-dependent loss tolerance in few-mode fiber transmission,” in 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.C.3.

T. Schenk, RF Imperfections in High-Rate Wireless Systems (Springer, 2008).

V. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, B. Inan, H. Chen, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, V. Veljanovski, A. M. J. Koonen, D. J. Richardson, S. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “Mode-division-multiplexed 3x112-Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission over 80-km few-mode fiber with inline MM-EDFA and blind DSP,” in 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Tu.1.C.2.

C. Koebele, M. Salsi, L. Milord, R. Ryf, C. Bolle, P. Sillard, S. Bigo, and G. Charlet, “40km transmission of five mode division multiplexed data streams at 100Gb/s with low MIMO-DSP complexity,” in 37th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper Th.13.C.3.

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, J. P. Wooler, A. M. Heidt, N. K. Baddela, Z. Li, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, N. V. Wheeler, J. R. Hayes, E. Numkam, L. Gr?ner-Nielsen, B. Pálsdóttir, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, M. Becker, N. MacSuibhne, J. Zhao, F. C. Garcia Gunning, A. D. Ellis, P. Petropoulos, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “First demonstration of 2?m data transmission in a low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in 38th European Conference and Exposition on Optical Communications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper Th.3.A.5.

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19x100x172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.1.

S. Randel, R. Ryf, A. Gnauck, M. A. Mestre, C. Schmidt, R. Essiambre, P. Winzer, R. Delbue, P. Pupalaikis, A. Sureka, Y. Sun, X. Jiang, and R. Lingle, “Mode-Multiplexed 6×20-GBd QPSK transmission over 1200-km DGD-compensated few-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5C.5.

N. Benvenuto and G. Cherubini, Algorithms for Communications Systems and their Applications (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

L. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, J. W. Nicholson, D. Jakobsen, R. Lingle, and B. Palsdottir, “Few mode transmission fiber with low DMD, low mode coupling and low loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper PDP5A.1.

K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, and R. Sugizaki, “Optimizing 2 mode fibers with Aeff of 170?m2 for LP01 mode and studying a possibility of realizing endlessly 2 mode operation using holey fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.16.

F. Ferreira, P. Monteiro, and H. Silva, “Semi-analytical model for linear modal coupling in few-mode fiber transmission,” in 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), 2012, paper Th.A1.5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber boundaries assumption.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average power as a function of the transmission distance for strong and weak mode coupling.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimated impulse responses after 80 km of transmission for a Goffset of zero and strong mode coupling from: a) LP11a to LP11a, b) LP11a to LP01, c) LP01 to LP11a d) LP01 to LP01; and weak mode coupling from: e) LP11a to LP11a, f) LP11a to LP01, g) LP01 to LP11a, h) LP01 to LP01.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OSNR penalty for different Goffset, a) weak () and b) strong () mode coupling as a function of the transmission distance.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MDL as a function of the frequency after 400 km and 160 km for weak and strong mode coupling, 200 realizations of channel transfer functions and a Goffset of 2 dB.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Average MDL as a function of the transmission distance for weak and strong mode coupling and 2 dB of gain offset.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Few-mode fiber parameters

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

MDL[dB]=10 log 10 ( max{ λ 1 , λ 2 ,..., λ 6 } min{ λ 1 , λ 2 ,..., λ 6 } )

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