Abstract

We demonstrate the use of an extended, optically trapped probe that is capable of imaging surface topography with nanometre precision, whilst applying ultra-low, femto-Newton sized forces. This degree of precision and sensitivity is acquired through three distinct strategies. First, the probe itself is shaped in such a way as to soften the trap along the sensing axis and stiffen it in transverse directions. Next, these characteristics are enhanced by selectively position clamping independent motions of the probe. Finally, force clamping is used to refine the surface contact response. Detailed analyses are presented for each of these mechanisms. To test our sensor, we scan it laterally over a calibration sample consisting of a series of graduated steps, and demonstrate a height resolution of ∼ 11 nm. Using equipartition theory, we estimate that an average force of only ∼ 140 fN is exerted on the sample during the scan, making this technique ideal for the investigation of delicate biological samples.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

J. Gluckstad, A. R. Banas, T. Aabo, and D. Palima, “Structure-mediated micro-to-nano coupling using sculpted light and matter,” in Proc. SPIE., 8424, 84241L (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Palima, A. R. Banas, G. Vizsnyiczai, L. Kelemen, P. Ormos, and J. Gluckstad, “Wave-guided optical waveguides,” Opt. Express20(3), 2004–2014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Lee, A. Curran, G. M. Gibson, M. Tassieri, N. R. Heckenberg, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical shield: measuring viscosity of turbid fluids using optical tweezers,” Opt. Express20(11), 12127–12132 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Optical trapping of microrods: variation with size and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(5), 850–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “First-order nonconservative motion of optically trapped nonspherical particles,” Phys. Rev. E82(3), 031141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Holographic optical trapping of microrods and nanowires,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(6), 1255–1264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe,” Nanotechnol.20(39), 395710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. Padgett, “Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14561–14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, C. A. Alonzo, and J. Gluckstad, “GPC-based optical micromanipulation in 3D real-time using a single spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express14(26), 13107–13112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Seitz, E. H. K. Stelzer, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric tracking of optically trapped probes behind structured surfaces: a phase correction method,” Appl. Optics45(28), 7309–7315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(19), 190801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. Friese, A. G. Truscott, H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, and N. R. Heckenberg, “Three-dimensional imaging with optical tweezers,” Appl. Opt.38(31), 6597–6603 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

Aabo, T.

J. Gluckstad, A. R. Banas, T. Aabo, and D. Palima, “Structure-mediated micro-to-nano coupling using sculpted light and matter,” in Proc. SPIE., 8424, 84241L (2012).
[CrossRef]

Agnew, C.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Alonzo, C. A.

Antognozzi, M.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

Banas, A. R.

D. Palima, A. R. Banas, G. Vizsnyiczai, L. Kelemen, P. Ormos, and J. Gluckstad, “Wave-guided optical waveguides,” Opt. Express20(3), 2004–2014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gluckstad, A. R. Banas, T. Aabo, and D. Palima, “Structure-mediated micro-to-nano coupling using sculpted light and matter,” in Proc. SPIE., 8424, 84241L (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Bolognesi, G.

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borodina, E.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Botchway, S. W.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowman, R.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brady, R. L.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burns, J. E.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burton, N. M.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butler, J. R.

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammarota, E.

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carberry, D. M.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

Clark, R. L.

Cole, D. G.

Cole, D. K.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Conners, R.

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G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
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R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
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Ferrari, A. C.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
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A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
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M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
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Gao, Q.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
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R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. Padgett, “Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14561–14570 (2008).
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Gibson, G. M.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, A. Curran, G. M. Gibson, M. Tassieri, N. R. Heckenberg, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical shield: measuring viscosity of turbid fluids using optical tweezers,” Opt. Express20(11), 12127–12132 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
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D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
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O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, S.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
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S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Optical trapping of microrods: variation with size and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(5), 850–858 (2011).
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S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Holographic optical trapping of microrods and nanowires,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(6), 1255–1264 (2010).
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S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “First-order nonconservative motion of optically trapped nonspherical particles,” Phys. Rev. E82(3), 031141 (2010).
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S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe,” Nanotechnol.20(39), 395710 (2009).
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Heckenberg, N. R.

Horber, J. K. H.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. C.

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jagadish, C.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, D. W. K.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jones, P. H.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keen, S.

Kelemen, L.

Kendrick-Jones, J.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocher, S. J.

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
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La Porta, A.

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(19), 190801 (2004).
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Leach, J.

G. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. Padgett, “Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14561–14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. P.

Linnenberger, A.

Loader, I.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Marago, O. M.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miles, M.

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miles, M. J.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molloy, J. E.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumayer, D.

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olof, S. N.

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ormos, P.

Ovsianikov, A.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Padgett, M.

R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. Padgett, “Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14561–14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Lee, A. Curran, G. M. Gibson, M. Tassieri, N. R. Heckenberg, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical shield: measuring viscosity of turbid fluids using optical tweezers,” Opt. Express20(11), 12127–12132 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paiman, S.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palima, D.

D. Palima, A. R. Banas, G. Vizsnyiczai, L. Kelemen, P. Ormos, and J. Gluckstad, “Wave-guided optical waveguides,” Opt. Express20(3), 2004–2014 (2012).
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J. Gluckstad, A. R. Banas, T. Aabo, and D. Palima, “Structure-mediated micro-to-nano coupling using sculpted light and matter,” in Proc. SPIE., 8424, 84241L (2012).
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Palmer, J.

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parker, A. W.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Perch-Nielsen, I. R.

Phillips, D. B.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, M. R.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pralle, A.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preece, D.

R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prummer, M.

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rarity, J. G.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reece, P. J.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, J. P.

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert, D.

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rodrigo, P. J.

Rohrbach, A.

P. C. Seitz, E. H. K. Stelzer, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric tracking of optically trapped probes behind structured surfaces: a phase correction method,” Appl. Optics45(28), 7309–7315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rohrbach, “Switching and measuring a force of 25 femtoNewtons with an optical trap,” Opt. Express13(24), 9695–9701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

Scardaci, V.

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaefer, H.

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Seitz, P. C.

P. C. Seitz, E. H. K. Stelzer, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric tracking of optically trapped probes behind structured surfaces: a phase correction method,” Appl. Optics45(28), 7309–7315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serati, S.

Simpson, S. H.

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Optical trapping of microrods: variation with size and refractive index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(5), 850–858 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “First-order nonconservative motion of optically trapped nonspherical particles,” Phys. Rev. E82(3), 031141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Holographic optical trapping of microrods and nanowires,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(6), 1255–1264 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe,” Nanotechnol.20(39), 395710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinhart, M.

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

P. C. Seitz, E. H. K. Stelzer, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric tracking of optically trapped probes behind structured surfaces: a phase correction method,” Appl. Optics45(28), 7309–7315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, R.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. H.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tassieri, M.

Tischer, C.

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toe, W. J.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towrie, M.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tregear, R. T.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Truscott, A. G.

Turchetta, R.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vicary, J. A.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Virji, M.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vizsnyiczai, G.

Wang, F.

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, M. D.

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(19), 190801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, A. D.

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, D. C. S.

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whyte, G.

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wills, J. B.

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, A. J.

Wulff, K. D.

Zaccai, N. R.

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Optics (1)

P. C. Seitz, E. H. K. Stelzer, and A. Rohrbach, “Interferometric tracking of optically trapped probes behind structured surfaces: a phase correction method,” Appl. Optics45(28), 7309–7315 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, J. G. Rarity, S. Hanna, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Force sensing with a shaped dielectric micro-tool,” Europhys. Lett.99, 58004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op. (1)

G. Gibson, D. M. Carberry, G. Whyte, J. Leach, J. Courtial, J. C. Jackson, D. Robert, M. Miles, and M. Padgett, “Holographic assembly workstation for optical manipulation,” J. Opt A-Pure Appl. Op.10(4), 044009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (2)

R. Bowman, D. Preece, G. Gibson, and M. Padgett, “Stereoscopic particle tracking for 3D touch, vision and closed-loop control in optical tweezers,” J. Opt.13(4), 044003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Phillips, D. M. Carberry, S. H. Simpson, H. Schaefer, M. Steinhart, R. Bowman, G. M. Gibson, M. J. Padgett, S. Hanna, and M. J. Miles, “Optimizing the optical trapping stiffness of holographically trapped microrods using high-speed video tracking,” J. Opt.13(4), 044023 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

E. L. Florin, A. Pralle, J. K. H. Horber, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Photonic force microscope based on optical tweezers and two-photon excitation for biological applications,” J. Struct. Biol.119(2), 202–211 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microsc. Res. Techniq. (1)

A. Pralle, M. Prummer, E. L. Florin, E. H. K. Stelzer, and J. K. H. Horber, “Three-dimensional high-resolution particle tracking for optical tweezers by forward scattered light,” Microsc. Res. Techniq.44(5), 378–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

O. M. Marago, P. H. Jones, F. Bonaccorso, V. Scardaci, P. G. Gucciardi, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Femtonewton Force Sensing with Optically Trapped Nanotubes,” Nano Lett.8(10), 3211–3216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Reece, W. J. Toe, F. Wang, S. Paiman, Q. Gao, H. H. Tan, and C. Jagadish, “Characterization of Semiconductor Nanowires Using Optical Tweezers,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2375–2381 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnol. (2)

D. B. Phillips, J. A. Grieve, S. N. Olof, S. J. Kocher, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Surface imaging using holographic optical tweezers,” Nanotechnol.22(28), 285503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “Thermal motion of a holographically trapped SPM-like probe,” Nanotechnol.20(39), 395710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

D. Grier, “A revolution in optical manipulation,” Nature424(6950), 810–816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Molloy, J. E. Burns, J. Kendrick-Jones, R. T. Tregear, and D. C. S. White, “Movement and Force Produced By A Single Myosin Head,” Nature378(6553), 209–212 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

M. R. Pollard, S. W. Botchway, B. Chichkov, E. Freeman, R. N. J. Halsall, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. Loader, A. Ovsianikov, A. W. Parker, R. Stevens, R. Turchetta, A. D. Ward, and M. Towrie, “Optically trapped probes with nanometer-scale tips for femto-Newton force measurement,” New J. Phys.12, 1130560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

A. Rohrbach, “Switching and measuring a force of 25 femtoNewtons with an optical trap,” Opt. Express13(24), 9695–9701 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Rodrigo, I. R. Perch-Nielsen, C. A. Alonzo, and J. Gluckstad, “GPC-based optical micromanipulation in 3D real-time using a single spatial light modulator,” Opt. Express14(26), 13107–13112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Phillips, S. H. Simpson, J. A. Grieve, G. M. Gibson, R. Bowman, M. J. Padgett, M. J. Miles, and D. M. Carberry, “Position clamping of optically trapped microscopic non-spherical probes,” Opt. Express19(21), 20622–20627 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Palima, A. R. Banas, G. Vizsnyiczai, L. Kelemen, P. Ormos, and J. Gluckstad, “Wave-guided optical waveguides,” Opt. Express20(3), 2004–2014 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Lee, A. Curran, G. M. Gibson, M. Tassieri, N. R. Heckenberg, and M. J. Padgett, “Optical shield: measuring viscosity of turbid fluids using optical tweezers,” Opt. Express20(11), 12127–12132 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gibson, J. Leach, S. Keen, A. J. Wright, and M. Padgett, “Measuring the accuracy of particle position and force in optical tweezers using high-speed video microscopy,” Opt. Express16(19), 14561–14570 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Preece, R. Bowman, A. Linnenberger, G. Gibson, S. Serati, and M. Padgett, “Increasing trap stiffness with position clamping in holographic optical tweezers,” Opt. Express17(25), 22718–22725 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

C. Agnew, E. Borodina, N. R. Zaccai, R. Conners, N. M. Burton, J. A. Vicary, D. K. Cole, M. Antognozzi, M. Virji, and R. L. Brady, “Correlation of in situ mechanosensitive responses of the Moraxella catarrhalis adhesin UspA1 with fibronectin and receptor CEACAM1 binding,” P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA108(37), 15174–15178 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. B. Wills, J. R. Butler, J. Palmer, and J. P. Reid, “Using optical landscapes to control, direct and isolate aerosol particles,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.11(36), 8015–8020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. H. Simpson and S. Hanna, “First-order nonconservative motion of optically trapped nonspherical particles,” Phys. Rev. E82(3), 031141 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. Di Leonardo, E. Cammarota, G. Bolognesi, H. Schaefer, and M. Steinhart, “Three-Dimensional to Two-Dimensional Crossover in the Hydrodynamic Interactions between Micron-Scale Rods,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 044501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. La Porta and M. D. Wang, “Optical torque wrench: Angular trapping, rotation, and torque detection of quartz microparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(19), 190801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE. (1)

J. Gluckstad, A. R. Banas, T. Aabo, and D. Palima, “Structure-mediated micro-to-nano coupling using sculpted light and matter,” in Proc. SPIE., 8424, 84241L (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Rohrbach, C. Tischer, D. Neumayer, E. L. Florin, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Trapping and tracking a local probe with a photonic force microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(6), 2197–2210 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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