Abstract

We studied the far-field optical response of supported gold-silica-gold nanosandwiches using spectroscopic ellipsometry, reflectance and transmittance measurements. Although transmittance data clearly shows that the gold nanodisks in the sandwich structure interact very weakly, oblique reflectance spectra of s- and p-polarized light show clearly asymmetric line-shapes of the Fano type. However, all experimental results are very well described by modeling the gold nanodisks as oblate spheroids and by employing a 2 × 2 scattering matrix formulation of the Fresnel coefficients provided by an island film theory. In particular, the Fano asymmetry can be explained in terms of interference between the scattered waves from the decoupled nanodisks in the spectral range limited by their respective plasmon resonances. We also show that the reflectance and ellipsometry spectra can be described by a three-layer system with uniaxial effective dielectric functions.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

M. Svedendahl and M. Käll, “Fano interference between localized plasmons and interface reflections,” ACS Nano6(8), 7533–7539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Pakizeh, A. Dmitriev, M. S. Abrishamian, N. Granpayeh, and M. Käll, “Structural asymmetry and induced optical magnetism in plasmonic nanosandwiches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(4), 659–667 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Gold-silica-gold nanosandwiches: tunable bimodal plasmonic resonators,” Small3(2), 294–299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “A negative permeability material at red light,” Opt. Express15(3), 1076–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, “Optical effect of the substrate on the anomalous absorption of aggregated silver films,” Thin Solid Films21(1), 173–187 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abrishamian, M. S.

Agio, M.

Agrawal, G. P.

Alaverdyan, Y.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apell, P.

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arwin, H.

A. Mendoza-Galván, K. Järrendahl, A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and H. Arwin, “Optical response of supported gold nanodisks,” Opt. Express19(13), 12093–12107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bao, K.

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Cai, W.

Chang, W. S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

Chipouline, A.

Chong, C. T.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A.

Drachev, V. P.

Ekinci, Y.

Y. Jeyaram, S. K. Jha, M. Agio, J. F. Löffler, and Y. Ekinci, “Magnetic metamaterials in the blue range using aluminum nanostructures,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1656–1658 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emel’yanov, V. I.

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, V. A.

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flach, S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fredriksson, H.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gallinet, B.

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(23), 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gantzounis, G.

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gippius, N. A.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granpayeh, N.

Halas, N. J.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, H. T.

Hendry, E.

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hübner, U.

Järrendahl, K.

Jeyaram, Y.

Jha, S. K.

Johansen, K.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

M. Svedendahl and M. Käll, “Fano interference between localized plasmons and interface reflections,” ACS Nano6(8), 7533–7539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mendoza-Galván, K. Järrendahl, A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and H. Arwin, “Optical response of supported gold nanodisks,” Opt. Express19(13), 12093–12107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pakizeh, A. Dmitriev, M. S. Abrishamian, N. Granpayeh, and M. Käll, “Structural asymmetry and induced optical magnetism in plasmonic nanosandwiches,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(4), 659–667 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Gold-silica-gold nanosandwiches: tunable bimodal plasmonic resonators,” Small3(2), 294–299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pakizeh, M. S. Abrishamian, N. Granpayeh, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Magnetic-field enhancement in gold nanosandwiches,” Opt. Express14(18), 8240–8246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasemo, B.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kinbara, A.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, “Optical effect of the substrate on the anomalous absorption of aggregated silver films,” Thin Solid Films21(1), 173–187 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Koo, S.

Kooij, E. S.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lal, S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhammer, C.

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Li, Q.

Li, T.

Liedberg, B.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Löffler, J. F.

Luk’yanchuk, B.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundström, I.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, K. F.

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(23), 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Galván, A.

Mewe, A.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mirin, N. A.

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miroshnichenko, A. E.

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nordlander, P.

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pakizeh, T.

Pannipitiya, A.

Papanikolaou, N.

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

Parsons, J.

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

Petschulat, J.

Piao, X.

Poelsema, B.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Premaratne, M.

Pshenay-Severin, E.

Qiu, L.

Rekveld, S.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Sambles, J. R.

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Solak, H. H.

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stefanou, N.

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Gold-silica-gold nanosandwiches: tunable bimodal plasmonic resonators,” Small3(2), 294–299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Svedendahl, M.

M. Svedendahl and M. Käll, “Fano interference between localized plasmons and interface reflections,” ACS Nano6(8), 7533–7539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thünnerman, A.

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tserkezis, C.

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. P.

Wang, S.

Wormeester, H.

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, “Optical effect of the substrate on the anomalous absorption of aggregated silver films,” Thin Solid Films21(1), 173–187 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, “Optical effect of the substrate on the anomalous absorption of aggregated silver films,” Thin Solid Films21(1), 173–187 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

Yuan, H.-K.

Zäch, M.

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

Zoric, I.

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Influence of electromagnetic interactions on the line shape of plasmonic Fano resonances,” ACS Nano5(11), 8999–9008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Svedendahl and M. Käll, “Fano interference between localized plasmons and interface reflections,” ACS Nano6(8), 7533–7539 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

H. Fredriksson, Y. Alaverdyan, A. Dmitriev, C. Langhammer, D. S. Sutherland, M. Zäch, and B. Kasemo, “Hole–mask colloidal lithography,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)19(23), 4297–4302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

N. J. Halas, S. Lal, W. S. Chang, S. Link, and P. Nordlander, “Plasmons in strongly coupled metallic nanostructures,” Chem. Rev.111(6), 3913–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. A. Fedotov, V. I. Emel’yanov, K. F. MacDonald, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical properties of closely packed nanoparticle films: spheroids and nanoshells,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.6(2), 155–160 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

N. A. Mirin, K. Bao, and P. Nordlander, “Fano resonances in plasmonic nanoparticle aggregates,” J. Phys. Chem. A113(16), 4028–4034 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, “The optical properties of metal nanoparticles: the influence of size, shape, and dielectric environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107(3), 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

T. Pakizeh, C. Langhammer, I. Zorić, P. Apell, and M. Käll, “Intrinsic Fano interference of localized plasmons in Pd nanoparticles,” Nano Lett.9(2), 882–886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett.8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Luk’yanchuk, N. I. Zheludev, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, P. Nordlander, H. Giessen, and C. T. Chong, “The Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.9(9), 707–715 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

A. Pannipitiya, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, H. T. Hattori, and G. P. Agrawal, “Improved transmission model for metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides with stub structure,” Opt. Express18(6), 6191–6204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Piao, S. Yu, S. Koo, K. Lee, and N. Park, “Fano-type spectral asymmetry and its control for plasmonic metal-insulator-metal stub structures,” Opt. Express19(11), 10907–10912 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mendoza-Galván, K. Järrendahl, A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and H. Arwin, “Optical response of supported gold nanodisks,” Opt. Express19(13), 12093–12107 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, “Electric and magnetic resonances in arrays of coupled gold nanoparticle in-tandem pairs,” Opt. Express16(17), 13287–13295 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li and G. P. Wang, “Tunable photonic metamaterials in the near infrared frequencies,” Opt. Express18(13), 14123–14128 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-K. Yuan, U. K. Chettiar, W. Cai, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “A negative permeability material at red light,” Opt. Express15(3), 1076–1083 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pshenay-Severin, A. Chipouline, J. Petschulat, U. Hübner, A. Thünnerman, and T. Pertsch, “Optical properties of metamaterials based on asymmetric double-wire structures,” Opt. Express19(7), 6269–6283 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pakizeh, M. S. Abrishamian, N. Granpayeh, A. Dmitriev, and M. Käll, “Magnetic-field enhancement in gold nanosandwiches,” Opt. Express14(18), 8240–8246 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. Christ, Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, N. A. Gippius, S. G. Tikhodeev, and O. J. F. Martin, “Controlling the Fano interference in a plasmonic lattice,” Phys. Rev. B76(20), 201405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Tserkezis, N. Papanikolaou, G. Gantzounis, and N. Stefanou, “Understanding artificial optical magnetism of periodic metal-dielectric-metal layered structures,” Phys. Rev. B78(16), 165114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Parsons, E. Hendry, J. R. Sambles, and W. L. Barnes, “Localized surface-plasmon resonances and negative refractive index in nanostructured electromagnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B80(24), 245117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Gallinet and O. J. F. Martin, “Ab initio theory of Fano resonances in plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(23), 235427 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

A. E. Miroshnichenko, S. Flach, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Fano resonances in nanoscale structures,” Rev. Mod. Phys.82(3), 2257–2298 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundström, and B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: Sensitivity considerations,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71(9), 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Small (1)

A. Dmitriev, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Gold-silica-gold nanosandwiches: tunable bimodal plasmonic resonators,” Small3(2), 294–299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

T. Yamaguchi, S. Yoshida, and A. Kinbara, “Optical effect of the substrate on the anomalous absorption of aggregated silver films,” Thin Solid Films21(1), 173–187 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. Wormeester, E. S. Kooij, A. Mewe, S. Rekveld, and B. Poelsema, “Ellipsometric characterisation of heterogeneous 2D layers,” Thin Solid Films455–456, 323–334 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. M. A. Azzam and N. M. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, , 1977).

D. Bedeaux and J. Vlieger, Optical Properties of Surfaces (Imperial College Press, 2001).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental spectra of nanosandwiches and silica-capped nanodisks: (a) normal incidence transmittance; (b) s-polarized transmittance at angle of incidence of 25°; s-polarized reflectance at angle of incidence of 20°. The insets schematically show the nanosandwich (left) and nanodisk (right) structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Complex nanodisks polarizabilities: (a)-(b) in-plane αj,|| and (c)-(d) out-of-plane α j,⊥. The insets in (b) and (c) schematically show the structural parameters for the nanodisks at the bottom and at the top, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the analyzed systems: (a) supported oblate spheroids; (b) free-standing oblate spheroids; (c) two layers of free-standing oblate spheroids; (d) light propagation through two layers with different surface susceptibilities.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Island film theory calculated spectra for individual free-standing nanosdisks layers shown in Fig. 3(b): (a) normal incidence transmittance, (b) p-polarized and s-polarized (c) reflectance at angle of incidence 50°. (d) Spectral dependence of phase differences between the in-plane polarizabilities of Fig. 2φ), reflection coefficients for p- (Δφp = φ1p-φ2p) and s-polarized (Δφs = φ1s-φ2s) light at 50° angle of incidence. Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the bottom and top nanodisks, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Island film theory calculated spectra for two free-standing nanosdisks layers shown in Fig. 3(d) immersed in air and separated by 60 nm. (a) Normal incidence transmittance; (b) p-polarized reflectance and (c) s-polarized reflectance at angles of incidence between 20 and 70° (in steps of 10°). (d) Spectral dependence of the phase Φp = φ1p2p + 2ϕ + δ p in Eq. (14) for p-polarization. In (a) also is shown the product T1T2 of spectra shown in Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimental and island film theory calculated spectra for nanosandwiches: p- and s-polarized reflectance at angles of incidence (a) 50° and (b) 70°; (c) normal incidence transmittance; ellipsometric spectra at angles of incidence (d) 50° and (e) 70°. The two non-interacting oblate spheroids representing the nanosandwiches are schematically shown at the bottom-left.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effective dielectric function tensor components of gold nanodisks layers: (a)-(b) in-plane ε|| and (c)-(d) out-of-plane ε. The inset in (c) depicts the three homogeneous layers system. The space layer has real-valued dielectric functions components close to unity.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental and calculated three-effective layers spectra of: p- and s-polarized reflectance at angles of incidence (a) 40° and (b) 70°; ellipsometric spectra of Ψ and Δ at (c) 40° and (d) 70°.

Equations (18)

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α j( ||, ) = 4π a j 2 c j 3 ε a ( ε m ε a ) [ ε a + L j( ||, ) ( ε m ε a ) ] ,
L j,|| = l j,|| L j,sub k 2 a j c j 3 2i k 3 a j 2 c j 9 ,
l j,|| = η j 2 2 ( η j 2 1 ) 3/2 [ arctan( η j 2 1 ) η j 2 1 η j 2 ],
L j,sub = ε a ε a ε s ε a + ε s η j 2 2 ( η j 2 1 ) 3/2 [ ( d j / c j ) η j 2 1 η j 2 + ( d j / c j ) 2 1 arctan( η j 2 1 ( d j / c j ) ) ],
r s = n a cos θ i n s cos θ t +ikγ n a cos θ i + n s cos θ t ikγ ,
r p = κ ik[ γcos θ i cos θ t n a n s ε a β sin 2 θ i ] κ + ik[ γcos θ i cos θ t + n a n s ε a β sin 2 θ i ] ,
κ ± =( n s cos θ i ± n a cos θ t )[ 1 k 2 ε a γβ sin 2 θ i /4 ].
t s = 2 n a cos θ i / D s ,
t p = 2 n a cos θ i ( 1+ k 2 γβ ε a sin 2 θ i /4 ) / D p ,
I f = 1 t f [ 1 r f r f t f 2 r f 2 ],
r f s = X s 1 X s , r f p = Z p Y p ( 1 Z p )( 1 Y p ) ,
t f s = 1 1 X s , t f p = 1 Y p Z p ( 1 Z p )( 1 Y p ) ,
X s = ikγ 2 n a cos θ i , Y p = ikγcos θ i 2 n a , Z p = ikβ n a 3 sin 2 θ i 2cos θ i .
R p,s = R 2 p,s + R 1 p,s | t 2 (p,s)2 r 2 (p,s)2 | 2 +2 R 1 p,s R 2 p,s | t 2 (p,s)2 r 2 (p,s)2 |cos Φ p,s 1+ R 1 p,s R 2 p,s 2 R 1 p,s R 2 p,s cos( φ 1 p,s + φ 2 p,s +2ϕ ) ,
T= | t sa / S 11 | 2 exp( α s d s ),
r p / r s =tanΨexp( iΔ ).
ε j,|| = ε a [ 1+ q j α j,|| / V j ],
ε j, = ε a [ 1 q j α j, / V j ] 1 .

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